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Table 1 Differences and similarities in clinical features between the COPD population, blood eosinophilhigh COPD subgroup and AC patients

From: Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic COPD versus COPD patients with a history of asthma

  AC
n = 14
Group A
COPD population n = 67 A vs. B
p value
A vs. C
p value
COPD
n = 67
Group B
aBlood Eosinophilhigh
COPD subgroup
n = 14
Group C
Gender (% Male) 79 67 79 0.53 >0.99
Age (years) 57.0 (6.9) 69.2 (6.7) 66.7 (8.3) <0.0001 0.002
BMI (kg/m2) 29.1 (4.5) 27.0 (5.3) 27.8 (4.9) 0.18 0.47
FFMI(kg/m2) 16.8 (2.7) 16.8 (4.4) 17.3 (3.3) 0.98 0.69
Smoking history (% Ex) 71 78 79 0.73 >0.99
Pack years 33.7 [13.5–69.8] 44.0 [14.5–154.0] 47.1 [24.0–154.0] 0.25 0.09
Exacerbation (12mths prior) 3 [0–5] 1 [0–6] 1 [0–4] 0.003 0.04
Chronic bronchitis (%) 86 55 64 0.04 0.38
Any comorbidities (%) 85 84 79 >0.99 >0.99
Age COPD diagnosis 50.7 (5.9) 61.2 (7.5) 61.7 (7.5) <0.0001 0.0002
Duration of COPD diagnosis (years) 8 [0.5–16] 8 [1–38] 7.5 [3–11] 0.52 0.94
ICS use (%) 93 78 71 0.28 0.33
ICS dose (BDP equivalent) 1550 [0–2000] 1000 [0–2000] 900 [0–2000] 0.45 0.35
SGRQ total 34.0 [15.3–78.8] 46.7 [3.2–90.5] 39.1 [3.2–90.5] 0.95 0.65
CAT 19.3 (8.8) 17.7 (8.5) 16.4 (10.1) 0.53 0.37
CCQ total 1.8 [0.6–5.1] 2.2 [0.1–4.8] 1.8 [0.1–4.1] 0.88 0.53
Skin prick positive to >1 allergen (%) 50 1.54 7.14 <0.0001 0.03
Allergic rhinitis (%) 0 4.6 7.1 >0.99 >0.99
Hayfever (%) 57.1 10.4 7.1 0.0003 0.01
Eczema (%) 35.7 11.9 21.4 0.04 0.68
Yes to do you suffer from allergies? (%) 85.7 9.0 7.1 <0.0001 <0.0001
Family history of asthma (%) 53.8 23.4 28.6 0.04 0.44
Total IgE (IU/ml) 156 [2–2458] 51 [2–6360] 85 [8–307] 0.17 0.43
High IgE (>100 IU/ml) 50.0 37.3 50.0 0.23 >0.99
Pre FEV1 (L) 1.8 (0.7) 1.3 (0.5) 1.4 (0.6) 0.005 0.21
Pre FEV1 (%) 55.3 (16.6) 49.0 (18.8) 51.8 (22.6) 0.25 0.64
Pre FEV1/FVC 0.5 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.2) 0.009 0.10
Post FEV1 (L) 2.0 (0.7) 1.4 (0.6) 1.6 (0.7) 0.003 0.20
Post FEV1 (%) 61.5 (16.5) 54.4 (18.9) 57.6 (22.8) 0.19 0.60
Post FEV1/FVC 0.52 (0.1) 0.43 (0.1) 0.42 (0.1) <0.01 0.02
Reversibility % 8.1 [-4.9–30.4] 9.0 [-7.6–48.2] 11.2 [-3.0–48.2] 0.96 0.67
Reversibility (ml) 175.0 [-100.0–510.0] 100 [-100–500] 130.0 [-60.0–500.0] 0.37 0.90
BDR ≥12% and 200ml (%) 28.6 22.4 35.7 0.73 >0.99
BDR ≥15% and 400ml (%) 14.3 4.5 7.14 0.20 >0.99
Raw (kPa.sec) 0.4 (0.2) 0.4 (0.2) 0.6 (0.4) 0.91 0.31
sGaw (kPa.sec) 0.4 [0.2–1.1] 0.5 [0.1–2.9] 0.4 [0.1–1.3] 0.91 0.66
VC % 89.8 [77.9–111.5] 89.2 [59.8–141.5] 91.8 [65.8–141.5] 0.88 >0.99
TLC% 106.9 (16.4) 107.8 (15.7) 110.5 (13.0) 0.85 0.59
RV % 145.3 (51.7) 141.9 (51.2) 148.0 (46.9) 0.83 0.90
IC % 82.1 (14.0) 72.8 (18.1) 68.9 (21.6) 0.09 0.10
FRC % 125.5 (26.5) 131.5 (39.8) 142.1 (30.4) 0.60 0.19
KCO % 79.2 (13.3) 76.5 (20.5) 81.9 (21.8) 0.65 0.69
6MWD(metres) 376.4 (73.8) 363.9 (104.6) 399.1 (140.8) 0.70 0.63
FeNO 50 (ppb) 11.3 [5.2–56.0] 14.2 [3.8–42.6] 16.6 [10.2–42.6] 0.18 0.14
Blood eosinophil count (109/L) 0.22 [0.10–0.53] 0.20 [0.02–1.14] 0.42 [0.31–1.14] 0.25 0.001
Blood eosinophil % 3.5 [0.9–7.8] 2.8 [0.3–20.7] 5.4 [3.7–20.7] 0.10 0.002
Blood eosinophil count ≥300 cells/μl 35.7 20.9 100 0.30 0.0006
Blood eosinophil >5% 14.3 13.4 64.3 >0.99 0.02
Sputum total cell count ×106/g 3.3 [1.0–21.2] 5.9 [0.5–116.0] 6.2 [0.7–24.1] <0.01 0.17
Sputum neutrophil % 68.8 [27.5–91.0] 82.8 [33.3–99.8] 74.8 [48.0–90.6] 0.02 0.53
Sputum macrophage % 21.2 [6.8–44.0] 11.6 [0.3–58.8] 18 [1.24–31.5] 0.02 0.23
Sputum eosinophil % 2.5 [0.5 -9.3] 2.6 [0–16.3] 7.0 [3.5–15.8] 0.92 0.002
Sputum lymphocyte % 0.3 [0.0–4.5] 0.3 [0.0–5.0] 0.1 [0.0–1.0] 0.22 0.30
Sputum epithelial cells % 2.8 [0.3–27.5] 0.9 [0.0–13.0] 2.1 [0.0–13.0] 0.02 0.30
Sputum neutrophil cell count ×106/g 2.5 [0.3–17.5] 4.7 [0.3–112.5] 4.6 [0.4–21.8] 0.01 0.15
Sputum macrophage cell count ×106/g 0.6 [0.2–2.1] 0.8 [0.0–5.3] 0.58 [0.23–1.74] 0.76 0.78
Sputum eosinophil cell count ×106/g 0.1 [0.01–1.3] 0.1 [0.0–1.3] 0.4 [0.1–1.3] 0.30 <0.01
Sputum lymphocyte cell count ×106/g 0.01 [0.0–0.06] 0.0 [0.0–0.48] 0.0 [0.0–0.08] 0.98 0.82
Sputum epithelial cell count ×106/g 0.15 [0.01–0.92] 0.05 [0.0–1.35] 0.07 [0.0–0.89] 0.03 0.34
Sputum eosinophil ≥3%b 46.2 36 100 >0.99 0.008
Eosinophilic/Mixed/Neutrophilic/Paucigranulocytic (%) 8/33/ 31/23 8/40/ 46/6 30/70/ 0/0 <0.0001 <0.0001
Bacterial load (genome copies/ml) 4.97×104 [0.00–2.06×106] 7.55×104 [0.00–4.01×107] 5.52×104 [0.00–9.33×106] 0.41 0.77
Colonised (sum bacterial load ≥1×104) (%) 83 65 64 0.31 0.37
  1. Data is presented as mean (SD), medians [range] or % as appropriate; spirometry values were related to the reference values of the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS)
  2. The bold p values represent significant p values
  3. a14 out of the 67 COPD patients (Group B) with no history of asthma had blood eosinophil count ≥300 cells/μl (Eosinophilhigh, Group C)
  4. b50 patients from the COPD population produced a sputum sample
  5. Definitions of abbreviations: AC COPD with childhood asthma diagnosis, ICS Inhaled corticosteroids, BDP Beclometasone disproportionate, BMI Body Mass Index, FFMI Fat Free Mass Index, BDR Bronchodilator response, Raw Airway resistance, sGAW specific conductance, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, CCQ Clinical COPD Questionnaire, CAT COPD Assessment Test, Pre Pre bronchodilator, Post Post bronchodilator, FEV 1 Forced Expired Volume in first second, FVC Forced vital capacity, VC Vital Capacity, TLC Total Lung Capacity, RV Residual Volume, IC Inspiratory Capacity, FRC Functional Residual Capacity, KCO Carbon monoxide transfer coefficient, 6MWD 6 minute walk distance, FeNO 50 Fractional exhaled nitric oxide at 50ml/sec flow rate