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Table 6 Patient characteristics in the groups with differential distance =0 km or > 0 km

From: Outcomes after early and delayed rehabilitation for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Differential distance = 0 Differential distance > 0 Standardized difference (%)
n = 7446 n = 5008  
Age (years), mean (sd) 78.7 (9.4) 78.1 (9.6) 6.6
Sex (female), n (%) 1357 (18.2) 975 (19.5) 3.2
Pre-admission within 180 day, n (%) 1695 (22.8) 1120 (22.4) 1
Japan Coma Scale, n (%)    4.1
 Alert 5604 (75.3) 3784 (75.6)  
 Dull 1299 (17.4) 882 (17.6)  
 Somnolence 337 (4.5) 189 (3.8)  
 Coma 206 (2.8) 153 (3.1)  
Body mass index, n (%)    7.6
  < 18.5 2644 (35.5) 1684 (33.6)  
 18.5–22.9 2431 (32.6) 1710 (34.1)  
 23.0–24.9 648 (8.7) 382 (7.6)  
 25.0–29.9 493 (6.6) 321 (6.4)  
  ≥ 30 87 (1.2) 83 (1.7)  
 Missing 1143 (15.4) 828 (16.5)  
Smoking index, mean (sd) 713 (1472) 728 (1735) 0.9
Barthel index, n (%)    5.1
 0 2556 (34.3) 1743 (34.8)  
 5–9 858 (11.5) 549 (11.0)  
 10–14 1001 (13.4) 626 (12.5)  
 15–19 440 (5.9) 298 (6.0)  
 20 1010 (13.6) 751 (15.0)  
 Missing 1581 (21.2) 1041 (20.8)  
Hugh-Jones dyspnoea scale score, n (%)    9.4
 0 1182 (15.9) 720 (14.4)  
 1 333 (4.5) 178 (3.6)  
 2 625 (8.4) 374 (7.5)  
 3 718 (9.6) 449 (9.0)  
 4 1665 (22.4) 1126 (22.5)  
 5 2471 (33.2) 1820 (36.3)  
 Missing 452 (6.1) 341 (6.8)  
Charlson comorbidity index, n (%)    0.3
 0–1 4663 (62.6) 3140 (62.7)  
 2–3 2424 (32.6) 1624 (32.4)  
  ≥ 4 359 (4.8) 244 (4.9)  
Intensive care unit admission, n (%) 668 (9.0) 414 (8.3) 2.5
Oxygen intake at admission, n (%) 5238 (70.3) 3470 (69.3) 2.3
Intubation at admission, n (%) 252 (3.4) 228 (4.6) 6
Steroid dose (mg), mean (sd) 206 (609) 219 (643) 2.2
Hospital volume, mean (sd) 222 (128) 219 (138) 2.4
Population density of patient living area ≤ 249 persons/km2, n (%) 1147 (15.4) 752 (15.0) 1.1
Distance between patient residence and hospital (km), mean (SD) 6.08 (14.84) 8.58 (36.81) 8.9
Early pulmonary rehabilitation 0.38 (0.49) 0.24 (0.43) 30.2
Rehabilitation total session (hours), mean (sd) 8.3 (12.7) 7.4 (11.0) 7.2
Rehabilitation duration (days), mean (sd) 18.2 (20.0) 19.2 (21.5) 4.8