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Table 5 Patient characteristics in the groups included into or excluded from study

From: Outcomes after early and delayed rehabilitation for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Excluded Included Standardized difference (%)
n = 33327 n = 12572  
Age (years), mean (sd) 78.3 (10.7) 78.4 (9.5) 1.0
Sex (female), n (%) 6415 (19.2) 2355 (18.7) 1.3
Pre-admission within180 day, n (%) 7997 (24.0) 2853 (22.7) 3.1
Japan Coma Scale, n (%)    20.0
 Alert 22972 (68.9) 9485 (75.4)  
 Dull 6234 (18.7) 2198 (17.5)  
 Somnolence 2006 (6.0) 529 (4.2)  
 Coma 2114 (6.3) 360 (2.9)  
 Missing 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Body mass index, n (%)    13.1
  < 18.5 11733 (35.2) 4372 (34.8)  
 18.5–22.9 10081 (30.2) 4179 (33.2)  
 23.0–24.9 2440 (7.3) 1041 (8.3)  
 25.0–29.9 1926 (5.8) 817 (6.5)  
  ≥ 30 349 (1.0) 170 (1.4)  
 Missing 6798 (20.4) 1993 (15.9)  
Smoking index, mean (sd) 4218 (596790) 719 (1577) 0.8
Barthel index, n (%)    15.5
 0 13601 (40.8) 4335 (34.5)  
 5–9 2928 (8.8) 1422 (11.3)  
 10–14 3565 (10.7) 1648 (13.1)  
 15–19 1882 (5.6) 741 (5.9)  
 20 4910 (14.7) 1775 (14.1)  
 Missing 6441 (19.3) 2651 (21.1)  
Hugh-Jones dyspnoea scale score, n (%)    19.6
 0 7076 (21.2) 1918 (15.3)  
 1 1494 (4.5) 513 (4.1)  
 2 2412 (7.2) 1009 (8.0)  
 3 2775 (8.3) 1179 (9.4)  
 4 5624 (16.9) 2823 (22.5)  
 5 11574 (34.7) 4331 (34.4)  
 Missing 2372 (7.1) 799 (6.4)  
Charlson comorbidity index, n (%)    6.8
 0–1 20712 (62.1) 7879 (62.7)  
 2–3 10494 (31.5) 4086 (32.5)  
  ≥ 4 2121 (6.4) 607 (4.8)  
Intensive care unit admission, n (%) 2093 (6.3) 1088 (8.7) 9.2
Oxygen intake at admission, n (%) 22151 (66.5) 8787 (69.9) 7.4
Intubation at admission, n (%) 1547 (4.6) 478 (3.8) 4.2
Steroid dose (mg), mean (sd) 180.6 (611.3) 210.6 (620.9) 4.9
Hospital volume, mean (sd) 209.4 (139.4) 221.1 (131.9) 8.6
Population density of patient living area ≤ 249 persons/km2, n (%) 27697 (83.1) 10595 (84.3) 3.2
 Missing 169 (0.5) 64 (0.5)  
Distance between patient residence and hospital (km), mean (SD) 6.0 (19.6) 7.1 (26.0) 4.6