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Table 3 Characteristics of patient clusters

From: Cluster analysis of sputum cytokine-high profiles reveals diversity in T(h)2-high asthma patients

CLUSTER 1 2 3 4 5 P value
Subjects (n=) 24 16 8 25 132  
Age (years) 44.0 ± 13.4 47.3 ± 14.1 39.0 ± 15.4 38.0 ± 12.7 40.2 ± 12.7 0.14
Gender (M/F) 12/12 6/10 4/4 11/14 62/70 0.95
Body Mass Index 22.5–26.8–28.8 21.2–25.4–29.9 20.7–23.5–30.9 21.9–23.6–26.0 21.8–24.3–28.7 0.55
Active smoking (%) 9 0 0 19 19 0.27
Atopy (%) 73 62 88 73 80 0.54
Steroid-naive (%) 8 18 12 20 23 0.82
Inhaled steroids only (%) 79 75 50 68 68 0.58
Inhaled and oral steroids (%) 13 7 38 12 9 0.15
FEV1, % predicted 86.0 ± 17.7 93.9 ± 17.5 95.6 ± 18.8 95.2 ± 21.4 96.1 ± 18.7 0.21
FEV1/FVC 69.0 ± 12.0 72.5 ± 8.1 71.3 ± 13.1 71.3 ± 13.4 73.1 ± 11.3 0.57
PEF, % predicted 90.0 ± 19.7 91.8 ± 18.5 96.9 ± 26.6 88.8 ± 26.7 97.5 ± 19.5 0.30
FEF25–75, % predicted 53.5 ± 25.6 55.5 ± 23.0 67.2 ± 41.4 67.8 ± 35.4 67.2 ± 30.6 0.29
FENO (ppb) 16.8–27.2–48.1 12.1–6.7–29.5 16.1–27.9–43.3 13.9–24.3–55.1 13.3–21.2–37.2 0.46
Sputum eosinophils (%) 0.6–2.0–31.1 0.2–1.0–8.0 0.0–1.0–4.0 0.0–0.8–2.0 0.0–1.0–4.0††† 0.36
Sputum neutrophils (%) 23.5–51.9–81.6*,† 29.5–64.0–73.8 22.0–32.0–62.4 37.0–55.0–77.9**,†† 11.8–24.8–49.5 <0.0001
  1. Clinical, lung function and inflammatory parameters in different asthma patients clusters defined by their sputum cytokine profile. Cluster 1: n = 24; IL-5-high and IL-17A-high, cluster 2: n = 16; IL-5-high and IL-10-high and IL-17 F-low, cluster 8: n = 15; IL-6-high, cluster 4: n = 25; IL-22-high, cluster 5: n = 132; normal levels of the previous cytokines with or without an IL-1β or TNF low profile. Normally distributed data were represented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by ANOVA. Data that were not normally distributed were represented as median and 25–75% (interquartile range) percentile and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Dunn’s Multiple Comparison test was used as a post hoc test. *,** p < 0.05, p < 0.01 respectively compared to cluster 5, †,††,††† p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively compared to mean/median level in asthmatics. FEV 1 Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, FVC Forced Vital Capacity, PEF Peak Expiratory Flow, FEF 25–75% Forced expiratory Flow at 25–75% interval, F E NO Fraction of exhaled Nitric Oxide