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Table 1 Clinical features. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC: forced vital capacity; Pack-yr = 1 year smoking 20 cigarettes-day. Data are mean ± SD. *P < 0.05 related to Healthy subjects

From: Non-neuronal cholinergic system contributes to corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

  Healthy
(n = 37)
Stable COPD
(n = 52)
Exacerbated COPD
(n = 16)
Age, yr 66.1 ± 6 65.1 ± 14 63.8 ± 8.4
Sex (M/F) 27/10 35/17 12/4
Tobacco consumption, pack-yr 0 35.2 ± 6* 42.3 ± 13*
FEV1, % pred 98 ± 3 53.2 ± 3* 38.0 ± 13*
FVC, % pred 96 ± 4 90.2 ± 6 89.5 ± 8
FEV1/FVC % 98 ± 3 50.1 ± 6* 46.2 ± 9*
GOLD 1 (mild) patients, no. 0 0 0
GOLD 2 (moderate) patients, no. 0 36 3
GOLD 3 (severe) patients, no. 0 16 10
GOLD 4 (very severe) patients, no. 0 0 3
Receiving inhaled steroids, no. 0 26 16
Receiving theophyllines, no. 0 0 0
Receiving long-acting b2-agonist, no. 0 49 16
Receiving anticholinergics, no. 0 41 13
Total peripheral blood neutrophils 4.2 ± 0.3 x 109/L 8.2 ± 1.3 x 109/L* 9.9 ± 0.2 x 109/L*