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Table 1 Summary results from the post-glycated three-dimensional collagen matrices

From: Fibroblast viability and phenotypic changes within glycated stiffened three-dimensional collagen matrices

Types matrices PBS DMEM
Fiber collagen I reflection fluorescence (ex/em: 568/568 nm) Short, thin, homogeny collagen fibers with no evidence of aggregation nor increment of reflection collagen fluorescence. Large heterogenic thick fibers that formed aggregates. Increase of reflection collagen fluorescence at higher ribose concentration.
 Stiffness (absolute values, KPa +/− SD) 7th day 0 mM 0.9 +/− 0.5 1.6 +/−0.3
14th day 30 mM 0.47 +/− 0.31 1.33 +/− 0.51
240 mM 1.17 +/−087 1.71 +/−0.72
21st 30 mM 0.97 +/−0.16 0.53 +/−0.21
240 mM 2.5 +/−1.35 1.03 +/−0.43
Viability AlamarBlue Assay Fluorescence (ex/em: 550/590 nm) Data not shown  
[Ribose] [Ribose]
240 mM → cell death 240 mM → cell death
≤30 mM → ↑ mitochondrial metabolism ≤30 mM → ↑ mitochondrial metabolism
Confocal Reflection Microscopy, live/dead assay (green/red stain) Data not shown  
[Ribose] [Ribose]
240 mM → cell death 240 mM → cell death
≤30 mM → Better viability (green stain) ≤30 mM → Better viability (green stain)
Cell morphology: round, stellar, short dendritic cells (See Additional file 3). Cell morphology: spindle, long dendritic cells (See Additional file 3).
Gel contraction Data not shown  
[Ribose] [Ribose]
Controls (0 mM): from 14th day 5 mM and 15 mM: Between 14th and 21st days of culture. 5 mM, 15 mM and controls (0 mM): between 14th and 21st day of culture.
AGEs autoflorescence (ex/em: 360/440 nm) At ↑[Ribose] → autofluorescence increase. At ↑[Ribose] → autofluorescence increase.
Higher autofluorescence at the 14th and 21st day compared with DMEM matrices (*). Higher autofluorescence at the 1st and 7th day compared with PBS matrices (*).
Protein synthesis α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) NA Gene expression (21st day): at 5 (*) and 15 mM of [Ribose] and controls.
Protein expression (14th and 21st days): in all conditions, particularly with 5 and 15 mM of [Ribose].
Tenascin-C (TNC) NA Protein expression: ↑ in a time-dependent manner at 14 and 21 days (*).
  1. PBS phosphate-buffered saline, DMEM Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium, Ex/em Excitation/Emission, nm nanometers, KPa KiloPascals, SD Standard deviation, mM miliMolar, N/A Not Available, [Ribose] concentration of ribose; ↓: decreased; ↑: elevated; ≤: minor or equal; (*) p < 0,05