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Table 7 Multivariable regression of risk factors associated with COPD prevalence in Peru, stratified by sex (n = 2930)

From: Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru

  Males (n = 1443) Females (n = 1487)
  Prevalence ratio 95% CI P Prevalence ratio 95% CI P
Age (per 10 years) 1.65 1.42–1.92 <0.001 2.51 1.86–3.38 <0.001
High altitude vs. sea-level 1.13 1.06–1.21 <0.001 1.44 1.05–1.99 0.02
≥10 pack-years of smoking 1.80 1.40–2.32 <0.001 2.39 0.59–9.63 0.22
Urbanization       
 Urban 1.00    1.00   
 Semi-Urban 0.52 0.43–0.64 <0.001 0.66 0.53–0.82 <0.001
 Rural 1.01 0.74–1.37 0.97 1.71 1.47–1.99 <0.001
Post-treatment pulmonary tuberculosis 3.12 2.02–4.83 <0.001 7.02 3.63–13.59 <0.001
Asthma 2.16 1.11–4.23 0.02 2.30 1.12–4.72 0.02
Biomass use at least once daily 1.08 0.55–2.11 0.82 2.22 1.02–4.81 0.04
Wealth index       
 Low 1.00    1.00   
 Middle 1.02 0.69–1.52 0.91 1.78 0.52–6.00 0.36
 High 0.68 0.39–1.19 0.18 1.44 0.54–3.86 0.47