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Table 6 Single variable factors associated with COPD prevalence across four sites in Peru (n = 2957)

From: Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru

  Prevalence ratio 95% CI P
Age (per 10 years) 1.93 1.71–2.17 <0.001
Male vs. Female Sex 2.35 1.61–3.42 <0.001
Height (cm) 1.01 0.99–1.02 0.27
High Altitude vs. sea-level 1.61 0.92–2.82 0.10
≥10 pack-years of smoking 2.51 1.65–3.80 <0.001
Urbanization    
 Urban 1.00   
 Semi-Urban 0.58 0.57–0.58 <0.001
 Rural 1.57 1.56–1.59 <0.001
Post-treatment pulmonary tuberculosis 4.27 3.09–5.88 <0.001
Asthma 2.49 1.59–3.88 <0.001
Biomass use at least once daily 1.68 1.25–2.25 0.001
Wealth Index    
 Low 1.00   
 Middle 0.81 0.50–1.30 0.38
 High 0.53 0.33–0.87 0.01