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Table 2 Blood parameters

From: Imbalance of dendritic cell co-stimulation in COPD

  Never-smoker (N) Smoker (S) COPD (C) S vs. N C vs. N C vs. S
n = 21 n = 21 n = 54 p-value p-value p-value
Systemic inflammation (yes/no) 1/20 9/12 27/27 <0.01 <0.001 0.530
Leukocytes (109/l blood) 6.1 [4.0-9.1] 8.7 [4.4-13.7] 8.4 [4.1-13.9] <0.01 <0.001 0.567
CRP (mg/l blood) 1.0 [1.0-8.2] 3.7 [1.0-14.8] 3.5 [1.0-24.3] <0.001 <0.001 0.552
Fibrinogen (g/l blood) 3.0 [2.4-4.8] 3.6 [2.5-5.4] 4.2 [2.2-6.4] <0.05 <0.001 0.153
Interleukin-6 (pg/ml blood) 2.17 [1.50-5.62] 2.42 [1.50-6.94] 4.19 [1.5-14.4] 0.362 <0.001 <0.01
25-OH-Vitamin-D (nmol/l) 54 [24–112] 62 [27–108] 45 [13–115] 0.443 0.294 0.059
  1. Parameters are displayed as median values [minimum…maximum]. Abbreviations denote: C-reactive protein (CRP). Presence of systemic inflammation was defined according to the proposal by Agusti and colleagues [15]. The columns on the right side of the table show comparisons between the groups: Asymptomatic Smokers (S), Never-smokers (N), patients with COPD (C).