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Table 4 The influence of family history of asthma and allergic diseases on early- and late-onset persistent asthma, The Espoo Cohort Study 1991–2011, Finland

From: Allergic diseases and asthma in the family predict the persistence and onset-age of asthma: a prospective cohort study

  Early onset persistent asthma vs. no asthma Late onset persistent asthma vs. no asthma Heterogeneity c
Family history of asthma RR RR a RR RR b (Q-statistic,
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) P -value)
Parents or siblings with asthma 3.58 (2.37-5.41) 4.10 (2.66-6.32) 1.57 (0.84-2.92) 1.44 (0.73-2.84) 6.47, 0.01
Parents or siblings with allergic diseases 2.79 (1.70-4.60) 3.24 (1.89-5.58) 1.43 (0.77-2.67) 1.26 (0.67-2.38) 4.94, 0.03
Maternal asthma 3.60 (2.00-6.50) 3.94 (2.11-7.36) 0.92 (0.28-3.07) 0.88 (0.28-2.81) 4.98, 0.03
Maternal allergic disease 2.89 (1.71-4.86) 3.04 (1.72-5.35) 1.71 (0.84-3.47) 1.27 (0.58-2.80) 3.07, 0.08
Paternal asthma 2.70 (1.30-5.61) 3.33 (1.57-7.06) 2.42 (0.99-5.91) 2.04 (0.75-5.52) 0.60, 0.44
Paternal allergic disease 1.51 (0.78-2.90) 1.86 (0.95-3.64) 0.63 (0.22-1.83) 0.64 (0.22-1.80) 2.89, 0.09
Both parents with asthma 8.73 (3.80-20.04) 9.61 (3.93-23.45) 7.75 (2.57-23.39) 5.46 (1.30-22.98) 0.42, 0.51
Both parents with allergic disease 3.71 (1.99-6.92) 4.48 (2.35-8.57) 2.58 (1.11-5.99) 2.41 (0.98-5.94) 1.20, 0.27
Siblings with asthma only 2.96 (1.70-5.15) 3.30 (1.84-5.92) 0.95 (0.30-3.04) 1.10 (0.33-3.61) 4.44, 0.04
Siblings with allergic disease only 2.08 (1.06-4.08) 2.31 (1.11-4.78) 1.24 (0.52-2.96) 1.24 (0.52-2.99) 1.13, 0.29
Parents with asthma only 3.24 (1.79-5.86) 3.89 (2.10-7.20) 1.60 (0.70-3.62) 1.21 (0.49-2.96) 2.64, 0.10
Parents with allergic disease only 2.43 (1.34-4.41) 2.85 (1.51-5.39) 1.25 (0.58-2.71) 0.92 (0.40-2.13) 4.41, 0.04
Parents and siblings with asthma 8.19 (4.31-15.57) 9.24 (4.68-18.22) 3.58 (1.27-10.14) 3.38 (1.13-10.18) 2.31, 0.13
Parents and siblings with allergic disease 4.44 (2.49-7.92) 5.50 (2.95-10.24) 1.96 (0.89-4.29) 1.93 (0.87-4.30) 3.36, 0.02
  1. 19 People excluded from the analyses due to follow-up period of less than 5 years (n = 8) or asthma relapse (n = 11).
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age, family socioeconomic status at baseline,
  3. maternal smoking in pregnancy, SHS at the age of 0–3, mold exposure at the age of 0–3, and duration of breast-feeding.
  4. bAdjusted for sex, age, family socioeconomic status at baseline,
  5. maternal smoking in pregnancy, SHS from birth to 13 years of age, duration of breast-feeding, mold exposure from birth to the age of 13.
  6. cHeterogeneity calculated between the adjusted risk ratios of early-onset and late-onset persistent asthma.
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