Short-axis B-dimensional views of both ventricles. The indices shown are ( A ) pulmonary artery acceleration time/pulmonary artery ejection time ratio - PAT/PET ratio - and ( B ) right ventricle area. (C) Echocardiographic images. LV: left ventricle, RV: right ventricle. The bars represent the means of 3 mice × SD/group. C: control groups. E: emphysema groups. Mice were treated with saline (SAL), or bone marrow (BM), adipose (AD) and lung (L)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). IV: intravenous route. IT: intratracheal route. *Vs. C group (p < 0.05). #Vs. E-SAL group (p < 0.05).