NE-induced pulmonary apoptosis and emphysema are mediated by PlGF and the downstream JNK/PKCδ signaling pathways. (A and C) The frozen lung tissue sections were used for TUNEL assay and (B and D) paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections were used for H and E staining. (E) Apoptotic cells in TUNEL assay were quantified and (F) the mean linear intercepts (MLI) from five independent sections were evaluated. Scale bar = 200 μm. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. vehicle-treated group; #p < 0.05 vs. NE-treated group; †p < 0.05 vs. corresponding WT group.