Expression of pulmonary TNF-α and IL-1β protein. Expression of pulmonary TNF-α (A) and IL-1β (B) detected by ELISA in WT and TLR9-D mice at different time points following CpG-ODN stimulation. Results were normalized to total protein content of lung tissue. A maximum in cytokine production was observed 2 hrs after CpG-ODN challenge. TNF-α (A) and IL-1β (B) protein expression were significantly higher in WT compared to TLR9-D mice (mean ± SEM; * p < 0.05).