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Table 4 The influence of respiratory health indicators (diagnoses and symptoms), assessed at baseline investigation, on the association between air pollution exposure (traffic, NO2, PM10) and cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of women aged 55 years at baseline investigation; results of a Cox' regression analysis.

From: Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

  <50 m distance to major road NO 2 [16μg/m 3 ] (five-year mean) 1 PM 10 [7μg/m 3 ] (five-year mean) 1
  RR 95%-CI p-value RR 95%-CI p-value RR 95%-CI p-value
n/N   120/4457    97/4198    97/4198  
Model (a), adjusted for potential confounders3 1.67 0.98–2.83 0.0573 1.72 1.24–2.39 0.0011 1.64 1.15–2.33 0.0056
Model (b), additionally adjusted for
Chronic Bronchitis by physician diagnose 1.63 0.96–2.76 0.0693 1.69 1.22–2.35 0.0017 1.62 1.14–2.30 0.0073
Frequent cough with phlegm production 1.71 1.01–2.88 0.0478 1.70 1.22–2.36 0.0015 1.62 1.14–2.31 0.0071
Frequent cough 1.71 1.01–2.88 0.0469 1.71 1.23–2.37 0.0013 1.63 1.15–2.32 0.0067
  1. 1 Analyses on long term exposure to air pollution were made on subjects who were living longer than five years under their current address.
  2. 2 Current smoking at the time of entering the study, no further adjustment for exposure to tobacco smoking
  3. 3 Educational level and smoking
  4. Abbreviations:
  5. RR: Risk ratio; CI: Confidence interval; n/N: number of dead and sample size
  6. Model (a)/(b): see text