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Figure 4 | Respiratory Research

Figure 4

From: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, inflammation and co-morbidity – a common inflammatory phenotype?

Figure 4

The central role of TNF-α in co-morbidity associated with COPD. TNF-α appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of COPD and other conditions that are increasingly being recognised as systemic inflammatory diseases. Certain TNF-α receptor polymorphisms are associated with increased severity of disease [85,86] and this may be due to enhanced TNF-α effects. CRP levels can be increased directly by TNF-α and other cytokines. Elevated CRP levels appear to be particularly crucial in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. ROS released as a result of COPD may enhance the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. TNF-α – tumour necrosis factor – alpha CRP – C reactive protein ROS – reactive oxygen species

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