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Table 2 Risk of dying in relation to primary cause of death. Cox regression, Hazard Risk ratio* and 95 % confidence interval.

From: Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

  All deaths Respiratory Cardiovascular
Age (10 years) 1.49 (1.17–1.90) 1.45 (1.07–1.97) 2.62 (1.35–5.10)
Women 0.67 (0.44–1.03) 0.70 (0.41–1.21) 0.89 (0.32–2.48)
Current smoking 1.47 (0.91–2.38) 1.73 (0.97–3.10) 0.93 (0.18–4.86)
FEV1 (per 10% pred. change) 0.83 (0.71–0.96) 0.76 (0.62–0.92) 0.87 (0.61–1.25)
≥ 2 previous hospitalizations 1.22 (0.79–1.90) 1.33 (0.77–2.30) 1.35 (0.43–4.22)
SGRQ score (4 units)    
Symptoms** 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 1.03 (0.96–1.10) 1.06 (0.95–1.17)
Activity** 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.99 (0.93–1.04) 1.12 (0.98–1.28)
Impact** 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 1.09 (0.97–1.22)
Total score 1.07 (1.01–1.14) 1.05 (0.97–1.14) 1.14 (0.99–1.32)
Co-morbidities    
Diabetes 2.25 (1.28–3.95) 2.42 (1.18–4.96) 3.82 (1.15–12.8)
Cardio-vascular disease 1.43 (0.92–2.23) 1.52 (0.87–2.65) 1.96 (0.65–5.92)
COPD severity according to the GOLD classification (12)***  
GOLD stage I-II 1 1 1
GOLD stage III 1.18 (0.63–2.20) 1.09 (0.46–2.57) 0.69 (0.16–2.88)
GOLD stage IV 1.81 (1.02–3.24) 2.40 (1.13–5.12) 1.05 (0.27–4.06)
  1. * adjusted for centre and the variables in the table
  2. ** entered separately, replacing SGRQ or HAD total score
  3. *** entered separately, replacing FEV1