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Table 3 Mortality risks among smokers within GOLD stages 1–4 in individuals with symptoms of chronic bronchitis, with individuals from the same GOLD stage without symptoms of chronic bronchitis as reference*

From: Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis

Gold stage Chr Br (%) Deaths HR** 95%CI p-value
Men
GOLD 1 44 (5.8) 25 2.04 1.34–3.11 0.001
GOLD 2 55 (8.3) 26 1.20 0.80–1.80 0.38
GOLD 3 17 (18.7) 9 0.71 0.34–1.51 0.38
GOLD 4 5 (20.8) 2 0.41 0.09–1.87 0.25
Women
GOLD 1 4 (2.4) 1 1.58 0.22–11.79 0.66
GOLD 2 17 (8.1) 7 3.16 1.38–7.23 0.006
GOLD 3 7 (21.2) 3 2.19 0.27–18.02 0.47
GOLD 4 3 (37.5) 2 0.58 0.08–4.11 0.59
  1. * HR denotes hazard ratio, with CI: 95% confidence interval, Chr Br: symptoms of chronic bronchitis.
  2. **Adjusted for age, tobacco consumption (>=20 g/<20 g tobacco) and inhalation habits.