TGF-β1 induces CTGF expression in A549. A549 cells were incubated for the times indicated with the concentrations of TGF-β1 shown. Cell lysates were used as a source for Western blot analysis of CTGF expression. Up-regulation of CTGF expression is observed with 1 ng/ml and higher concentrations of TGF-β1. This phenomenon parallels the altered expression of EMT related markers. Representative blots are shown from three independent experiments.