Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Distance to major roads and exposure to air pollutants (annual means and five year means) as predictors for respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function

From: Long-term air pollution exposure and living close to busy roads are associated with COPD in women

  Annual means Five year means
  <100 m from major road wi 10,000 cars/day compared to > 100 m NO 2 [16 μg/m 3 ] PM 10 [7 μg/m 3 ] NO 2 [16 μg/m 3 ] PM 10 [7 μg/m 3 ]
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Chronic bronchitis by physician diagnosis (n1 = 4205, n5 = 3761) 1.15 (0.89–1.50) 1.25(*) (1.00–1.58) 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 1.37** (1.16–1.62) 1.13 (0.95–1.34)
Chronic cough with phlegm production (n1 = 4237, n5 = 3792) 1.07 (0.83–1.37) 1.11 (0.85–1.45) 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 1.22 (0.90–1.64) 1.11 (0.93–1.31)
Frequent cough (n1 = 4262, n5 = 3813) 1.24* (1.03–1.49) 1.13* (1.01–1.27) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 1.15(*) (0.99–1.33) 1.05 (0.94–1.17)
COPD FEV1/FVC<0.7 (n1 = 2314, n5 = 2096) 1.79* (1.06–3.02) 1.39** (1.20–1. 63) 1.37(*) (0.98–1.92) 1.43** (1.23–1.66) 1.33* (1.03–1.72)
  MD (95% CI) MD (95% CI) MD (95% CI) MD (95% CI) MD (95% CI)
FEV1 (n1 = 2315, n5 = 2095) 0.987* (0.962–0.997) 0.961** (0.939–0.984) 0.953* (0.916–0.989) 0.951** (0.925–0.977) 0.949** (0.923–0.975)
FVC (n1 = 2310, n5 = 2092) 0.982* (0.966–0.998) 0.974** (0.954–0.993) 0.966* (0.940–0.992) 0.966** (0.945–0.987) 0.963** (0.945–0.982)
FEV1/FVC (n1 = 2314, n5 = 2096) 0.999 (0.990–1.007) 0.989** (0.985–0.993) 0.989(*) (0.978–1.000) 0.988** (0.982–0.993) 0.989* (0.980–0.997)
  1. Effect estimates adjusted for are age, smoking, SES, occupational exposure and form of heating FEV1 and FVC were additionally adjusted for BMI a height
  2. n1 sample size of all women, n5 sample size of women living at least five years at their residence, women living less than five years at their residence were excluded in the analyses of five year means of air pollutants
  3. (*) p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01