Neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary tertiary lymphoid tissue development and increased ANA levels are dependent on IL-1R1 expression. C57BL/6 and IL-/R1-/- mice were exposed to room air (open bars) or cigarette smoke (solid bars) for 24 weeks. (A) Lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). (B) Total neutrophils number was assessed in the BAL. (C) Pulmonary TLT were quantified using Image J software. (D) Pulmonary ANA and E) CXCL13 levels were measured in the BALF by ELISA. Data represent means ± SEM; n = 5 per group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.