Inflammatory and antiviral genes at 6 hours after RV-1B infection in healthy (n=10) and COPD (n=10) pBECs, confirmation of the microarray findings. Inflammatory cytokines (A) IL-6 and (B) TNF-α were not induced by RV-1B infection in healthy control pBECs, but were IL-6 was significantly up-regulated by infection in COPD pBECs, whilst TNF-α was significantly higher in the baseline media control and after RV infection. RNA helicases (C) MDA-5 and (D) RIG-I and antiviral (E) IFN-β, (F) IFN-λ1, (G) CCL-5 and (H) CXCL-10 mRNA were all significantly higher in RV infected COPD pBECs compared to healthy controls. Results are presented as mean fold change in expression with the error bar as standard error of the mean (SEM). * p<0.05 versus the corresponding media control. ^ p<0.05 versus healthy RV infected pBECs.