Cigarette smoke-induced increases in lung dendritic cells, CCL20 and GM-CSF expression is IL-1α-dependent. (A) BALB/c were exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days. Hamster IgG isotype control (white bar), anti-IL-1α (gray bar), or anti-IL-1β (black bar) antibody were injected intraperitoneally daily starting one day prior to room air or smoke exposure. Data show flow cytometric analysis of CD11chi MHC IIhi dendritic cells (left) and expression of CD86 (right) (M.F.I., mean fluorescence intensity). (B) Dendritic cell frequency and expression of CD86 was examined in smoke-exposed IL-1α-deficient (gray bar) and wild type (white bar) mice. (C) Expression of CCL20 (left) and GM-CSF (right) in 4-day smoke-exposed mice injected with hamster isotype control, anti-IL-1α or anti-IL-1β antibodies. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM of at least five mice per group and are representative of at least two independent experiments.