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Table 3 Associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction

From: Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

  Total Chronic Cough Chronic Phlegm Wheezing Airway Obstruction
  No. No. (%) RR (95% CI)1 No. (%) RR (95% CI)1 No. (%) RR (95% CI)1 No. (%) RR (95% CI)1
Total 8,967 317 (3.5)   304 (3.4)   301 (3.4)   196 (2.2)  
Managerial and Administrative Support Occupations 2,474 70 (2.8) 1.00 (referent) 62 (2.5) 1.00 (referent) 74 (3.0) 1.00 (referent) 52 (2.1) 1.00 (referent)
Professional Specialty Occupations 1,407 29 (2.1) 0.73 (0.48, 1.13) 28 (2.0) 0.80 (0.51, 1.26) 36 (2.6) 0.93 (0.63, 1.38) 23 (1.6) 0.99 (0.61, 1.61)
Technical and Sales Occupations 1,035 25 (2.4) 0.88 (0.56, 1.38) 18 (1.7) 0.68 (0.41, 1.15) 31 (3.0) 1.01 (0.67, 1.53) 22 (2.1) 1.04 (0.64, 1.68)
Service Occupations          
Private household occupations 417 22 (5.3) 1.45 (0.89, 2.37) 20 (4.8) 1.79 (1.07, 3.01) 14 (3.4) 1.29 (0.72, 2.33) 9 (2.2) 1.24 (0.59, 2.60)
Protective service 90 2 (2.2) 0.87 (0.22, 3.50) 3 (3.3) 1.31 (0.42, 4.11) 3 (3.3) 1.13 (0.37, 3.43) 3 (3.3) 1.64 (0.53, 5.02)
Food preparation and service 226 7 (3.1) 0.85 (0.39, 1.87) 9 (4.0) 1.56 (0.78, 3.13) 13 (5.8) 1.88 (1.03, 3.41) 4 (1.8) 0.95 (0.34, 2.62)
Health service 202 9 (4.5) 1.23 (0.61, 2.50) 13 (6.4) 2.58 (1.43, 4.68) 7 (3.5) 1.17 (0.54, 2.53) 4 (2.0) 1.23 (0.45, 3.35)
Cleaning and building service 188 12 (6.4) 1.85 (1.01, 3.37) 13 (6.9) 2.28 (1.27, 4.08) 9 (4.8) 1.68 (0.85, 3.32) 1 (0.5) 0.33 (0.05, 2.42)
Other service occupations 164 6 (3.7) 1.16 (0.51, 2.67) 10 (6.1) 2.59 (1.35, 4.95) 7 (4.3) 1.50 (0.70, 3.22) 4 (2.4) 1.55 (0.56, 4.30)
Farming, Forestry, and Fishing Occupations 94 5 (5.3) 1.85 (0.76, 4.49) 2 (2.1) 0.76 (0.19, 3.11) 4 (4.3) 1.32 (0.49, 3.56) 3 (3.2) 1.51 (0.49, 4.69)
Precision Occupations          
Mechanics and repairers 250 14 (5.6) 1.81 (1.02, 3.21) 17 (6.8) 2.10 (1.23, 3.57) 7 (2.8) 0.81 (0.37, 1.77) 8 (3.2) 1.26 (0.59, 2.66)
Construction and extractive trades 282 13 (4.6) 1.62 (0.90, 2.91) 15 (5.3) 1.70 (0.97, 2.97) 9 (3.2) 1.02 (0.52, 2.03) 8 (2.8) 1.33 (0.63, 2.80)
Other precision occupations 297 15 (5.1) 1.55 (0.91, 2.66) 17 (5.7) 1.89 (1.13, 3.16) 13 (4.4) 1.26 (0.70, 2.30) 7 (2.4) 0.93 (0.44, 1.99)
Machine Operating Occupations          
Textile, apparel, furnishing machine operators 93 7 (7.5) 2.62 (1.20, 5.72) 7 (7.5) 3.72 (1.75, 7.91) 3 (3.2) 1.07 (0.34, 3.40) 1 (1.1) 0.68 (0.10, 4.79)
Machine operators, assorted materials 192 10 (5.2) 1.66 (0.88, 3.14) 9 (4.7) 1.71 (0.87, 3.36) 7 (3.6) 1.13 (0.53, 2.38) 8 (4.2) 2.02 (0.96, 4.23)
Hand working occupations 93 3 (3.2) 1.09 (0.35, 3.39) 6 (6.5) 2.63 (1.16, 6.00) 2 (2.2) 0.72 (0.18, 2.85) 3 (3.2) 1.68 (0.52, 5.39)
Motor vehicle operation 221 14 (6.3) 1.91 (1.07, 3.41) 12 (5.4) 1.61 (0.87, 2.97) 11 (5.0) 1.45 (0.76, 2.74) 8 (3.6) 1.53 (0.72, 3.27)
Transportation, excl. motor vehicle 83 4 (4.8) 1.63 (0.61, 4.35) 3 (3.6) 1.10 (0.35, 3.43) 4 (4.8) 1.42 (0.52, 3.83) 4 (4.8) 1.89 (0.70, 5.14)
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, laborers 171 8 (4.7) 1.46 (0.71, 3.00) 9 (5.3) 1.89 (0.95, 3.73) 9 (5.3) 1.70 (0.86, 3.34) 6 (3.5) 1.69 (0.75, 3.85)
Other machine operating occupations 164 8 (4.9) 1.62 (0.80, 3.27) 9 (5.5) 1.95 (0.97, 3.94) 6 (3.7) 1.14 (0.50, 2.57) 2 (1.2) 0.58 (0.14, 2.32)
Homemaker, no other job reported 824 34 (4.1) 1.51 (0.99, 2.31) 22 (2.7) 1.57 (0.94, 2.60) 32 (3.9) 1.26 (0.81, 1.94) 16 (1.9) 1.06 (0.59, 1.88)
  1. 1 Adjusted for age, number of cigarettes per day, race, sex, smoking status, and study center