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Table 2 Symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months - summary of ecological analyses*.

From: Which population level environmental factors are associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Review of the ecological analyses of ISAAC Phase One

Ecological Issue Specific Factor 13-14 Year Age Group 6-7 Year Age Group
   Direction of effect P Value Direction of effect P Value
Economic development GNP + 0.12 0.06 0.32
Diet Calories from cereals and rice % - 0.007 - 0.083
  Protein from cereals and nuts % - 0.039 - 0.111
  Starch g/d - 0.266 - 0.069
  Vegetables g/d - 0.083 - 0.453
  Vegetable Vitamin A μ/d - 0.085 - 0.479
  Trans fatty acids + < 0.0001   
Immunisation Local immunisation rates for DTP# + 0.002 - > 0.05
  Local immunisation rates for measles - 0.015 - > 0.05
TB exposure TB notification rates, WHO - 0.015   
Outdoor climate Altitude - > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Annual variation in mean temperature - > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean temperature + > 0.05 + > 0.05
  Annual variation in mean relative humidity + > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean relative humidity - > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Mean relative humidity of ≥ 1 month < 50%humidity + > 0.05 + > 0.05
Indoor climate Mean annual relative humidity + > 0.05 + > 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean relative humidity + > 0.05 + > 0.05
Tobacco smoking Tobacco consumption, ≥ 15 yrs - 0.86 + 0.52
  Tobacco smoking, women - 0.68 + 0.76
  Tobacco smoking, men - < 0.001 - 0.06
Pollen Total grass pollen count - 0.07   
  Days with high pollen counts - 0.14   
Antibiotic usage Antibiotic sales per capita - 0.76   
Air pollution PM10 - 0.49 - 0.06
Paracetamol Per capita paracetamol sales + < 0.0005 + 0.002
  1. *standardized for GNP. Where p values are recorded as > 0.05 the non significant p values were not provided in the source publication. #DTP = Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis.
  2. Blank space = data not collected. + = positive association. - = inverse association.