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Table 1 General characteristics of the study groups.

From: Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study

  COPD group
(n = 324)
Reference group
(n = 110)
p
Male gender 241 (74%) 51 (46%) < 0.0001
Age (years) 64 (10) 55 (10) 0.0001
Smoking status    < 0.0001
   Never smoker 67 (21%) 66 (60%)  
   Former smoker 138 (43%) 30 (27%)  
   Current smoker 119 (37%) 14 (13%)  
Smoking exposure (pack-years) 40 (25-55) 10 (5-30) < 0.0001
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 27.9 (4.8) 26.1 (3.4) 0.001
Education level    0.130
   Less than primary school 53 (16%) 9 (8%)  
   Primary school 120 (37%) 41 (37%)  
   Secondary school 84 (26%) 40 (36%)  
   University degree 62 (19%) 20 (18%)  
Current treatment    
   Short-acting beta-agonist 57 (18%) 0 0.0001
   Long-acting beta-agonist 68 (21%) 0 0.0001
   Anticholinergic 52 (16%) 0 0.0001
   Methylxantines 7 (2%) 0 0.127
   Inhaled corticosteroids 75 (23%) 0 0.0001
Pulmonary function    
   FVC (L) 3.34 (1.00) 3.96 (1.12) < 0.0001
   FVC (% of predicted) 99 (22) 119 (16) < 0.0001
   FEV1 (L) 2.03 (0.67) 3.13 (0.88) < 0.0001
   FEV1 (% of predicted) 77 (19) 115 (15) < 0.0001
   FEV1/FVC 0.61 (0.08) 0.79 (0.05) < 0.0001
   Postbronchodilator FVC (L) 3.53 (1.01) 3.95 (1.10) < 0.0001
   Postbronchodilator FVC (% of predicted) 105 (21) 119 (14) < 0.0001
   Postbronchodilator FEV1 (L) 2.18 (0.69) 3.19 (0.88) < 0.0001
   Postbronchodilator FEV1 (% of predicted) 82 (20) 117 (14) < 0.0001
   Postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC 0.62 (0.08) 0.81 (0.05) < 0.0001
   Distance walked in 6 minutes (m) 450 (122) 514 (108) < 0.0001
BODE index score    < 0.0001
   Quartile 1 (0-2) 282 (90%) 110 (100%)  
   Quartile 2 (3-4) 19 (6%) 0  
   Quartile 3 (5-6) 10 (3%) 0  
   Quartile 4 (7-10) 2 (0.6%) 0  
EQ-5D questionnaire    
   VAS score 75 (60-85) 85 (80.0-93.8) < 0.0001
   Utility score 0.91 (0.83-1.0) 1.0 (1.0-1.0) < 0.0001
SGRQ    
   Total 16.7 (6.2-28.6) 1.3 (0.0-3.3) < 0.0001
   Symptoms 19.6 (8.8-41.2) 4.3 (0.0-9.5) < 0.0001
   Activity 23.6 (6.0-47.7) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) < 0.0001
   Impact 7.6 (1.6-19.5) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) < 0.0001
LCADL scale 15 (14-17) 15 (15-15) 0.003
  1. Values are mean (SD) or median (interquartile range) depending on the distribution. Abbreviations: FVC = forced vital capacity; FEV1= forced expiratory volume in 1 second; SGRQ = St George Respiratory Questionnaire; LCADL = London Chest Activity of Daily Living. Comparisons between groups by U-Mann-Whitney test or t-Student test depending on the distribution.