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Table 5 The main causes of death in 302 decedents.

From: Survival in severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ)

  All
N = 302
n (%)
Smoker
N = 197
n (%)
Never-smokers
N = 105
n (%)
Respiratory 175 (58) 134 (68) 41 (39)
   Respiratory failure 117 92 25
   Pneumonia 48 34 14
   Pneumothorax 10 8 2
Hepatic 37 (12) 15 (8) 22 (21)
   Liver failure 13 7 6
   Primary liver carcinoma 18 7 11
   Gastrointestinal bleeding 4 - 4
   Intra-abdominal infection 2 1 1
Other 90 (30) 48 (24) 42 (40)
   Malignancy complication 29 14 15
   Cardiovascular accident 23 14 9
   Cerebrovascular accident 14 6 8
   Intra-abdominal infection* 8 6 2
   Gastrointestinal bleeding* 2 1 1
   Pulmonary embolism 6 4 2
   Suicide/accident 5 3 2
   Renal failure 3 - 3
  1. * without known liver disease