Skip to main content


Figure 11 | Respiratory Research

Figure 11

From: Selective accumulation of langerhans-type dendritic cells in small airways of patients with COPD

Figure 11

Proposed mechanism of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation towards tissue resident DC in COPD. Langerhans-type DC originate from their Blood Dendritic Cell Antigen 1 (BDCA-1)+ precursors under the influence of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ), Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFα) and Activin-A. During this differentiation process, DC downregulate expression of BDCA-1. Enhanced differentiation towards Langerhans-type DC is present in COPD, whereas the differentiation axis towards DC-SIGN positive interstitial type DC is not altered in COPD.

Back to article page