Innate immune responses to rhinovirus. PBMC from younger men and women (≤50 year old) were exposed to RV16 for 6 or 24 hours. RNA was extracted from cells at 6 hours post-infection, and reverse transcribed. Real-time PCR was performed and mRNA expression normalised to the control gene UBE2D2. (A) mRNA expression of MxA and OAS. (B) mRNA expression of IL-12/p35 and IL-23/p19. (C) Culture supernatants were collected at 24 hours post-infection and assayed for IFNα and IP-10 by ELISA. Data were natural log transformed and are presented as mean ± SEM.