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Table 2 Summary of Significant Adverse Effects with Intervention Compared to Placebo/Control

From: Pharmacotherapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Event Number of studies Number of participants RR 95% CI
Prostanoids*     
   Jaw pain 5 893 4.87 2.01 to 11.76
   Diarrhea 4 826 2.62 1.40 to 4.89
   Peripheral edema 3 652 2.22 1.22 to 4.07
   Headache 4 782 1.96 1.10 to 3.47
   Nausea 5 893 1.57 1.23 to 2.00
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors*     
   Visual disturbance 3 567 3.83 1.19 to 12.30
   Dyspepsia 3 567 3.77 1.92 to 7.43
   Flushing 3 567 2.11 1.31 to 3.39
   Headache 3 567 1.73 1.19 to 2.51
   Limb pain 3 567 1.67 1.10 to 2.53
  1. CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk
  2. * RR & 95% CI calculated for adverse events reported in three or more studies