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Table 5 Comparison of models with estimated and observed prevalence of respiratory symptoms and COPD among female never smokers

From: Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women

Time Exposure Prevalence [%]
   Model: PM 10 Model: NO 2 observed
Chronic cough
Baseline Median exposure a 19.8 20.1 18.9
15 years later No exposure decline 38.6 28.1 --
  Exposure decline b 26.4 26.4 26.5
Chronic cough with phlegm production
Baseline Median exposure a 9.1 8.9 8.8
15 years later No exposure decline 21.4 14.3 --
  Exposure decline b 13.3 13.0 13.3
Mild COPD c
Baseline Median exposure a 8.5 9.4 8.4
15 years later No exposure decline 39.5 23.1 --
  Exposure decline b 17.5 16.1 18.2
Moderate COPD d
Baseline Median exposure a 3.6 4.0 3.2
15 years later No exposure decline 15.6 8.1 --
  Exposure decline b 6.3 5.6 6.6
  1. a Exposure at baseline (median) of PM10 and NO2: 48.3 mg/m3 and 46.6 μg/m3
  2. b Exposure decline (average) of PM10 and NO2: 20 μg/m3 and 10 μg/m3
  3. c FEV1 /FVC < 0.7
  4. d FEV1 /FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% reference value