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Table 4 Results of GEE regression analysis: Association of prevalence of chronic bronchitis, respiratory symptoms, and COPD with smoking at baseline and at follow up, exposure at baseline, follow-up time and exposure decline; coefficients are mutually adjusted

From: Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women

  Chronic bronchitis a Chronic cough Chronic cough with phlegm production Mild COPD b Moderate COPD c
  PM 10 NO 2 PM 10 NO 2 PM 10 NO 2 PM 10 NO 2 PM 10 NO 2
Sample size 1950 1902 1922 342 342
  Parameter estimates and 95% confidence interval (times 100)
Intercept -1.51-12.04;9.02 4.33 *0.94;7.73 0.24-14.85;15.33 15.05 *10.15;19.95 5.10-6.06;16.26 9.07 *5.48;12.67 -2.81-28.64;23.01 3.93-3.47;11.33 -15.52 *-24.83;-6.21 0.15-4.04;4.34
Smoking at baseline 2.42-1.31;6.16 1.95-1.66;5.57 13.94 *8.35;19.54 13.99 *8.36;19.62 5.92 *1.64;10.20 6.08 *1.77;10.39 3.92-5.34;13.19 4.67-4.95;14.28 7.02-0.89;14.92 7.62-1.01;16.24
Smokingat follow-up -1.20
-7.45;5.06
-1.57-7.83;4.68; 14.59 *5.86;23.32 14.46 * 5.73;23.20 7.82 * 1.56;14.08 7.96 *1.83;14.09 -9.25-27.72;9.22 -9.45-27.38;8.48 --2.18-16.06;11.69 2.04-16.02;11.93
Exposure at baseline d 2.01-0.25;4.26 2.32 *0.18;4.47 4.04 *0.80;7.28 2.69-0.40;5.77 0.82-1.56;3.20 -0.07-2.25;2.11 2.35-3.24;7.94 2.97-1.99;7.94 3.96 *1.60;6.32 2.05-0.96;5.06
Follow up time e 2.22-2.24;6.69 1.82 *0.28;3.37 12.58 *5.80;19.36 5.37 *2.77;7.98 8.22 *3.07;13.37 3.60 *1.60;5.59 20.61 *7.81;33.41 9.12 *4.78;13.46 8.02 *0.01;16.03 2.73 *0.03;5.43
Follow up time exposure decline f -0.17-4.37;4.03 0.21-1.08;1.50 -8.17 *-14.54;-1.79 -1.15-3.25;0.96 -5.39 *-10.22;-0.57 -0.87-2.41;0.66 -14.62 *-25.88;-3.36 -4.64 *-8.03;-1.26 -6.20-13.33;0.94 -1.66-3.8;0.048
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. a Reported physician's diagnosis
  3. b FEV1/FVC <0.7
  4. c FEV1/FVC <0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted
  5. d unit: PM10 10 μg/m3, NO2 25 μg/m3
  6. e unit: 10 yr
  7. f unit: PM10 20 μg/m3 /10 yr, NO2 10 μg/m3 /10 yr