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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population of elderly women at baseline and at follow-up

From: Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women

  Baseline 1985-1994 Follow-up 2006 Follow-up 2007/2008
  N Mean ±SD N Mean ±SD N Mean ±SD
Age (year) 2115 54.5 ± 0.7 2106 71.3 ± 3.3 402 74.1 ± 2.6
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 1874 27.2 ± 4.2 2048 27.0 ± 4.7 402 27.6 ± 4.6
  N % N % N %
Urban residency a 2116 55.7 2116 55.7 402 52.7
Smoking status:       
   Passive smoking 2091 47.1 2014 14.5 402 5.7
   Ex smoker 1758 9.0 2063 14.6 402 15.7
   Current smoker 2112 11.9 2063 5.6 402 3.0
Indoor exposure b 2081 18.2 1809 12.6 402 12.9
Education: 2098 - 2098 - 402 -
   < 10 years - 22.0 - 22.0 - 17.3
   = 10 years - 48.9 - 48.9 - 51.0
   11-12 years - 18.1 - 18.1 - 19.7
   > 12 years - 11.0 - 11.0 - 12.2
Asthma 2074 2.0 2021 5.4 401 9.7
Hypertension 2077 23.3 1997 53.4 400 66.3
  1. SD: Standard deviation
  2. BMI: Body mass index (weight/height2)
  3. a Urban. Duisburg, Dortmund, Essen, Gelsenkirchen; rural: Borken
  4. b Heating with fossil fuels (gas, coal or wood)