NF-κB decoy ODNs attenuated macrophage aggregation in smoke-induced chronic inflammation on day 92. (A) Alveolar macrophages (arrows) are largely observed in the lung parenchyma of smoke-exposed mice on day 92 in both normal saline-treated smoke-induced mice (NS) and scrambled ODNs-treated smoke-induced mice (Scr), but not in NF-κB decoy ODNs administered mice on day 92 of smoke exposure (Original magnification 400×), Bar = 50 μm. (B) Quantitative measurement of intra-alveolar macrophages, expressed as macrophages/mm2 (mean ± STD, n = 8/group). There was clear decrease of macrophage numbers in Decoy mice compared with NS and Scr group. Symbols delineate statistical significance compared to NS mice (*, P < 0.05) and Scr mice (#, P < 0.05). NS: normal saline-treated smoke-induced mice; Decoy: NF-κB decoy ODNs-treated smoke-induced mice; Scr: scrambled ODNs-treated smoke-induced mice.