Elastase induced experimental emphysema model. Rats were given saline (1 ml/kg, i.t.) or PPE (120 U/kg, i.t.). BAL samples were taken at each time point for determination of A: LMN levels (neutrophil and eosinophil levels are shown in Table 2). B: Effect of an IKK-2 inhibitor (TPCA-1) or budesonide on BAL lymphomononuclear cell levels. C: Levels of p65:DNA binding in the lung tissue. Statistical significance was determined using an unpaired t test with each independent group compared to the vehicle control. If the variances of the two groups were significantly different then the Mann Whitney rank sum test was used. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant and denoted with *. All the values are expressed as mean ± s.e. mean of 6 observations.