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  1. Afferent nerves in the airways serve to regulate breathing pattern, cough, and airway autonomic neural tone. Pharmacologic agents that influence afferent nerve activity can be subclassified into compounds that...

    Authors: Bradley J Undem and Michael J Carr
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:234
  2. Genomics, or the study of genes and their function, is a burgeoning field with many new technologies. In the present review, we explore the application of genomic approaches to the study of pulmonary hypertens...

    Authors: Mark W Geraci, Bifeng Gao, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Michael E Yeager, Rubin M Tuder and Norbert F Voelkel
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:210
  3. The large surface area, good vascularization, immense capacity for solute exchange and ultra-thinness of the alveolar epithelium are unique features of the lung that can facilitate systemic delivery via pulmon...

    Authors: Remigius Uchenna Agu, Michael Ikechukwu Ugwoke, Michoel Armand, Renaat Kinget and Norbert Verbeke
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:198
  4. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral immunodeficiency caused by disruption of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. Typical XLA patients suffer recurrent and severe bacterial infections in childhood.

    Authors: Kazuhiro Usui, Yoji Sasahara, Ryushi Tazawa, Koichi Hagiwara, Satoshi Tsukada, Toshio Miyawaki, Shigeru Tsuchiya and Toshihiro Nukiwa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:188
  5. The hygiene hypothesis, as originally proposed, postulated an inverse relation between the incidence of infectious diseases in early life and the subsequent development of allergies and asthma. New evidence fr...

    Authors: Fernando D Martinez
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:129
  6. The availability of molecular tools to carry out genotyping has led to a flurry of association studies between specific genes and clinical indices of disease or disease susceptibility. Human studies, for the m...

    Authors: Mitchell L Drumm
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:125
  7. Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of th...

    Authors: Scott Greenfeder, Shelby P Umland, Francis M Cuss, Richard W Chapman and Robert W Egan
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:71
  8. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21 amino acid peptide with diverse biological activity that has been implicated in numerous diseases. ET-1 is a potent mitogen regulator of smooth muscle tone, and inflammatory mediato...

    Authors: Karen A Fagan, Ivan F McMurtry and David M Rodman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:90
  9. The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies make...

    Authors: Suveer Singh and Ron du Bois
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:61
  10. The pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the interstitial lung disease cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) may involve an immunological reaction to unidentified antigens in the lung, resulting in tissue da...

    Authors: Cleo Robinson, Marinella Callow, Sandra Stevenson, Bruce WS Robinson and Richard A Lake
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:119
  11. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) mediates important pro-inflammatory functions in asthma including induction of the IgE isotype switch, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), promotion of eosinophil tra...

    Authors: John W Steinke and Larry Borish
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:66
  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airfl...

    Authors: David A Lomas and Edwin K Silverman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:20
  13. The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial.

    Authors: Mark D Eisner, Patricia P Katz, Edward H Yelin, Stephen C Shiboski and Paul D Blanc
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:4
  14. Despite much information on their catalytic properties and gene regulation, we actually know very little of what matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) do in tissues. The catalytic activity of these enzymes has been...

    Authors: William C Parks and Steven D Shapiro
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:3
  15. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used as anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. They act through binding to glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), which represses numerous genes encoding pro-inflamma...

    Authors: Rosalia Gagliardo, Antonio M Vignola and Marc Mathieu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:1
  16. The human lysosomal cysteine proteases are a family of 11 proteases whose members include cathepsins B, C, H, L, and S. The biology of these proteases was largely ignored for decades because of their lysosomal...

    Authors: Paul J Wolters and Harold A Chapman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:9
  17. Although bronchogenic carcinomas progress through a very well defined sequence of metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, very little is known about the early progression of glandular neoplasms of the lung. ...

    Authors: William H Westra
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:8
  18. Since their discovery 15 years ago, the role of γδ T cells has remained somewhat elusive. Responses of γδ T cells have been found in numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. New evidence points to γδ T...

    Authors: Willi K Born, Michael Lahn, Katsuyuki Takeda, Arihiko Kanehiro, Rebecca L O'Brien and Erwin W Gelfand
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:6
  19. Deficient microbial stimulation of the immune system, caused by hygiene, may underly the atopy and allergic asthma epidemic we are currently experiencing. Consistent with this 'hygiene hypothesis', research on...

    Authors: Paolo Maria Matricardi and Sergio Bonini
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:2
  20. Many pulmonary diseases preferentially affect the large airways or the alveoli. Although the mechanisms are often particular to each disease process, site-specific differences in leukocyte trafficking and the ...

    Authors: Claire M Doerschuk
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:4
  21. Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma an...

    Authors: Edith Puchelle and Bruno Peault
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:1
  22. The identification of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene opened the way for gene therapy. In the ten years since then, proof of principle in vitro and then in animal models in vivo has been followed by numerous clinic...

    Authors: Myra Stern, M Geddes Duncan and WFW Alton Eric
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:3
  23. The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized clinically by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, decreased pulmonary compliance and hypoxemia. Although suppor...

    Authors: Arthur S Slutsky and V Marco Ranieri
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:2
  24. Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) participates in the innate response to inhaled microorganisms and organic antigens, and contributes to immune and inflammatory regulation within the lung. SP-D is synthesized and se...

    Authors: Erika C Crouch
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:6
  25. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allo...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Sallenave
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:5
  26. Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are commonly associated with elevated production of nitric oxide (NO•) and increased indices of NO• -dependent oxidative stress. Although NO• is known to have ant...

    Authors: Albert van der Vliet, Jason P Eiserich and Carroll E Cross
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:1
  27. The limitations of currently available treatment for severe respiratory infection are demonstrated by the relatively fixed mortality associated with these infections despite advances in nutrition, vaccines, an...

    Authors: K Kolls Jay and Steve Nelson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:4

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