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  1. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters s...

    Authors: Margaretha van der Deen, Elisabeth GE de Vries, Wim Timens, Rik J Scheper, Hetty Timmer-Bosscha and Dirkje S Postma

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:59

    Content type: Review

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  2. In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (WT) and mice lacking (KO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the role played by iNOS in the development ...

    Authors: Tiziana Genovese, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola, Marco Failla, Emanuela Mazzon, Maria Angela Sortino, Giuseppina Frasca, Elisa Gili, Nunzio Crimi, Achille P Caputi and Carlo Vancheri

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:58

    Content type: Research

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  3. Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagens, and its expression is increased in various fibrotic diseases. The aim of th...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Hiroshi Ishii, Seiko Nakayama, Noriho Sakamoto, Sumako Yoshioka, Kanako Sugiyama, Mariko Mine, Yohei Mizuta and Shigeru Kohno

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:57

    Content type: Research

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  4. We have previously shown that the bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is attenuated in individuals with COPD. This study was designed to investigate whether the impairment in this effect is associated w...

    Authors: Nicola Scichilone, Andreina Bruno, Roberto Marchese, Antonio Maurizio Vignola, Alkis Togias and Vincenzo Bellia

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:55

    Content type: Research

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  5. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a major burden for patients and health care systems. Respiratory rehabilitation may improve prognosis in these patients by addressi...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Madlaina Scharplatz, Thierry Troosters and Johann Steurer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:54

    Content type: Research

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  6. The use of cytology brushes for the purpose of obtaining respiratory cells from adults for clinical and research purposes is well established. However, the safety and utility of non-bronchoscopic brushings to ...

    Authors: Catherine Lane, Scott Burgess, Anthony Kicic, Darryl Knight and Stephen Stick

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:53

    Content type: Research

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  7. Identifying genetic determinants for lung function is important in providing insight into the pathophysiology of asthma. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 is a transcription factor latent in t...

    Authors: Augusto A Litonjua, Kelan G Tantisira, Stephen Lake, Ross Lazarus, Brent G Richter, Stacey Gabriel, Eric S Silverman and Scott T Weiss

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:52

    Content type: Research

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  8. The role of alveolar type II cells in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity is unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in host defense. The purpose of the present study was to investi...

    Authors: Heide Wissel, Christian Schulz, Petra Koehne, Ekkehard Richter, Matthias Maass and Mario Rüdiger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:51

    Content type: Research

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  9. Swine farmers repeatedly exposed to the barn air suffer from respiratory diseases. However the mechanisms of lung dysfunction following repeated exposures to the barn air are still largely unknown. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Kyathanahalli S Janardhan, Hugh G Townsend, Philip Willson and Baljit Singh

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:50

    Content type: Research

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  10. Chronic lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent molecular biological based studies have identified a surprisingly wide range of hitherto unrepo...

    Authors: Geraint B Rogers, Mary P Carroll, David J Serisier, Peter M Hockey, Valia Kehagia, Graeme R Jones and Kenneth D Bruce

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:49

    Content type: Research

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  11. In peripheral airways, acetylcholine induces contraction via activation of muscarinic M2-and M3-receptor subtypes (M2R and M3R). Cholinergic hypersensitivity is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disea...

    Authors: Melanie Pfaff, Norbert Powaga, Sibel Akinci, Werner Schütz, Yoshiko Banno, Silke Wiegand, Wolfgang Kummer, Jürgen Wess and Rainer Viktor Haberberger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:48

    Content type: Research

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  12. The burden of proteinases from inflammatory cells in the lung of subjects with type Pi ZZ of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is higher than in those without the deficiency. Cross-sectional studies have shown in...

    Authors: Jan Stolk, Barbara Veldhuisen, Laura Annovazzi, Chiara Zanone, Elly M Versteeg, Toine H van Kuppevelt, Willem Nieuwenhuizen, Paolo Iadarola and Maurizio Luisetti

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:47

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2006 7:20

  13. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the most prominent features of asthma, however, precise mechanisms for its induction have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that systemic antigen sens...

    Authors: Kazuyuki Nakagome, Makoto Dohi, Katsuhide Okunishi, Yasuo To, Atsushi Sato, Yoshinori Komagata, Katsuya Nagatani, Ryoichi Tanaka and Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:46

    Content type: Research

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  14. The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women.

    Authors: Sara H Downs, Otto Brändli, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Margaret W Gerbase, Luc Burdet, Robert Bettschart, Elisabeth Zemp, Martin Frey, Roland Keller, Jean-Marie Tschopp, Philippe Leuenberger and Ursula Ackermann-Liebrich

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:45

    Content type: Research

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  15. In mice, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A causes a local accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchoalveolar space. IL-17A may thereby also contribute to an increased local proteolytic burden. In the curre...

    Authors: Stefan Ivanov, Lena Palmberg, Per Venge, Kjell Larsson and Anders Lindén

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:44

    Content type: Research

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  16. In the year 2000 Corus closed its steel plant operations in Redcar, NE of England temporarily for refurbishment of its blast furnace. This study investigates the impact of the closure on the chemical compositi...

    Authors: Gary R Hutchison, David M Brown, Leon R Hibbs, Mathew R Heal, Ken Donaldson, Robert L Maynard, Michelle Monaghan, Andy Nicholl and Vicki Stone

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:43

    Content type: Research

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  17. During the acute phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), mononuclear cells infiltration, alveolar cell desquamation and hyaline membrane formation have been described, together with dysregulation of...

    Authors: Chun-Hua Wang, Chien-Ying Liu, Yung-Liang Wan, Chun-Liang Chou, Kuo-Hsiung Huang, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Shu-Min Lin, Tzou-Yien Lin, Kian Fan Chung and Han-Pin Kuo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  18. Programming a mechanical ventilator with a biologically variable or fractal breathing pattern (an example of 1/f noise) improves gas exchange and respiratory mechanics. Here we show that fractal ventilation in...

    Authors: W Alan C Mutch, M Ruth Graham, Linda G Girling and John F Brewster

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:41

    Content type: Research

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  19. Lung fluid balance in the healthy lung is dependent upon finely regulated vectorial transport of ions across the alveolar epithelium. Classically, the cellular locus of the major ion transport processes has be...

    Authors: Steven Bourke, Helen S Mason, Zea Borok, Kwang-Jin Kim, Edward D Crandall and Paul J Kemp

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:40

    Content type: Research

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  20. The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on brain function are not understood, despite patients' frequent complaints of cognitive difficulties. Using clinical instruments normally administered during sta...

    Authors: Darren B Taichman, Jason Christie, Rosette Biester, Jennifer Mortensen, Joanne White, Sandra Kaplan, John Hansen-Flaschen, Harold I Palevsky, C Gregory Elliott and Ramona O Hopkins

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:39

    Content type: Research

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  21. Inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma underlies fixed airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The exact role of smoking as promoting factor of inflammation in chronic obstructive...

    Authors: Brigitte WM Willemse, Nick HT ten Hacken, Bea Rutgers, Dirkje S Postma and Wim Timens

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:38

    Content type: Research

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  22. An altered susceptibility of lung fibroblasts to Fas-induced apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we st...

    Authors: Frank Bühling, Aline Wille, Christoph Röcken, Olaf Wiesner, Anja Baier, Ingmar Meinecke, Tobias Welte and Thomas Pap

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  23. T cells play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Costimulation of T cells is necessary to fully activate them. An inducible costimulator (ICOS) of T cells is predominantly expressed on Th2 cells. Th...

    Authors: Ligia Chialda, Meixia Zhang, Kay Brune and Andreas Pahl

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  24. To investigate the occupational risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection in a low-incidence setting, data from a prospective study of patients with culture-confirmed TB conducted in Hamburg, Germany, from 1997 to 2...

    Authors: Roland Diel, Andreas Seidler, Albert Nienhaus, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes and Stefan Niemann

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:35

    Content type: Research

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  25. Inhalation of particles aggravates respiratory symptoms including mucus hypersecretion in patients with chronic airway disease and induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) in experimental animal models. However, ...

    Authors: Mi-Hyun Ahn, Chun-Mi Kang, Choon-Sik Park, Sang-Jun Park, Taiyoun Rhim, Pyeong-Oh Yoon, Hun Soo Chang, Soo-Ho Kim, Hiroko Kyono and Kwang Chul Kim

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:34

    Content type: Research

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  26. Interleukin (IL)-9 is a Th2-derived cytokine with pleiotropic biological effects, which recently has been proposed as a candidate gene for asthma and allergy. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a n...

    Authors: Brigita Sitkauskiene, Madeleine Rådinger, Apostolos Bossios, Anna-Karin Johansson, Raimundas Sakalauskas and Jan Lötvall

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:33

    Content type: Research

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  27. Cellular responses to aging and oxidative stress are regulated by type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Oxidant injury, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of respiratory dise...

    Authors: Karmene Ahamed, Ralph Epaud, Martin Holzenberger, Monique Bonora, Jean-François Flejou, Julien Puard, Annick Clement and Alexandra Henrion-Caude

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:31

    Content type: Research

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  28. Sub-epithelial extracellular matrix deposition is a feature of asthmatic airway remodelling associated with severity of disease, decline in lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness. The composition of, and...

    Authors: Alistair K Reinhardt, Stephen E Bottoms, Geoffrey J Laurent and Robin J McAnulty

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:30

    Content type: Research

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  29. Progestins as respiratory stimulants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been investigated in males and during wakefulness. However, sleep and gender may influence therapeutic responses. We in...

    Authors: Tarja Saaresranta, Tero Aittokallio, Karri Utriainen and Olli Polo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  30. The respiratory tract epithelium is a critical environmental interface that regulates inflammation. In chronic infectious airway diseases, pathogens may permanently colonize normally sterile luminal environmen...

    Authors: Qi Wu, Zhong Lu, Margrith W Verghese and Scott H Randell

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:26

    Content type: Research

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  31. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are capable of inducing high amounts of type I IFNs with many immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, type-I IFNs have been proposed to play a key role in mediating effect...

    Authors: Victor Matheu, Alexandra Treschow, Ingrid Teige, Vaidrius Navikas and Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  32. Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanica...

    Authors: Esther Rieger-Fackeldey, Richard Sindelar, Anders Jonzon, Andreas Schulze and Gunnar Sedin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:24

    Content type: Research

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  33. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous arginase activity potentiates airway responsiveness to methacholine by attenuation of agonist-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, presumably by competition with epith...

    Authors: Harm Maarsingh, Marieke A Tio, Johan Zaagsma and Herman Meurs

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  34. Chronic smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Knowledge on the response to the initial smoke exposures might enhance the understanding of changes due to chronic smoking, si...

    Authors: Hester van der Vaart, Dirkje S Postma, Wim Timens, Machteld N Hylkema, Brigitte WM Willemse, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk, Dorothea M de Reus, Henk F Kauffman and Nick HT ten Hacken

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  35. The pulmonary residence time of inhaled glucocorticoids as well as their rate and extend of absorption into systemic circulation are important facets of their efficacy-safety profile. We evaluated a novel appr...

    Authors: Matthias Freiwald, Anagnostis Valotis, Andreas Kirschbaum, Monika McClellan, Thomas Mürdter, Peter Fritz, Godehard Friedel, Michael Thomas and Petra Högger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  36. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an interstitial lung disease caused by repeated inhalations of finely dispersed organic particles or low molecular weight chemicals. The disease is characterized by an alve...

    Authors: Carlo Agostini, Fiorella Calabrese, Venerino Poletti, Guido Marcer, Monica Facco, Marta Miorin, Anna Cabrelle, Ilenia Baesso, Renato Zambello, Livio Trentin and Gianpietro Semenzato

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:20

    Content type: Research

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  37. The complement system forms the central core of innate immunity but also mediates a variety of inflammatory responses. Anaphylatoxin C3a, which is generated as a byproduct of complement activation, has long be...

    Authors: Hydar Ali and Reynold A Panettieri Jr

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:19

    Content type: Review

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  38. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced by stresses such as allergic factors and inflammatory responses in bronchi epithelial cells and therefore may be detectable in patients with asthma. However, the etio...

    Authors: Miao Yang, Tangchun Wu, Longxian Cheng, Feng Wang, Qingyi Wei and Robert M Tanguay

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:18

    Content type: Research

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  39. While the functional consequences of acute pulmonary infections are widely documented, few studies focused on chronic pneumonia. We evaluated the consequences of chronic Pseudomonas lung infection on alveolar fun...

    Authors: Sophie Boyer, Karine Faure, Florence Ader, Odile Marie Husson, Eric Kipnis, Thierry Prangere, Xavier Leroy and Benoit P Guery

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  40. Flexible video bronchoscopes, in particular the Olympus BF Type 3C160, are commonly used in pediatric respiratory medicine. There is no data on the magnification and distortion effects of these bronchoscopes y...

    Authors: IB Masters, MM Eastburn, PW Francis, R Wootton, PV Zimmerman, RS Ware and AB Chang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:16

    Content type: Research

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  41. There is a dearth of standardized studies examining exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its relationship to respiratory health among adults in developing countries.

    Authors: Wasim Maziak, Kenneth D Ward, Samer Rastam, Fawaz Mzayek and Thomas Eissenberg

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:13

    Content type: Research

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  42. α1-antitrypsin (AAT) serves primarily as an inhibitor of the elastin degrading proteases, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. There is ample clinical evidence that inherited severe AAT deficiency predisposes...

    Authors: Izabela Nita, Camilla Hollander, Ulla Westin and Sabina-Marija Janciauskiene

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:12

    Content type: Research

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  43. Reactive oxygen species and tissue remodeling regulators, such as metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs), are thought to be involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated th...

    Authors: Boris Manoury, Soazig Nenan, Olivier Leclerc, Isabelle Guenon, Elisabeth Boichot, Jean-Michel Planquois, Claude P Bertrand and Vincent Lagente

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:11

    Content type: Research

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  44. The mechanisms during the initial phase of oxygen toxicity leading to pulmonary tissue damage are incompletely known. Increase of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) represents one of the first pulmonary r...

    Authors: Florian Guthmann, Heide Wissel, Christian Schachtrup, Angelika Tölle, Mario Rüdiger, Friedrich Spener and Bernd Rüstow

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:10

    Content type: Research

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