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  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while...

    Authors: Andriana I Papaioannou, Konstantinos Kostikas, Panagoula Kollia and Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:128

    Content type: Review

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  2. Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus is a major public health concern. Given the lack of effective vaccine and recent evidence of antiviral drug resistance in some isolates, alternative strategies for ...

    Authors: Brendon J Hanson, Adrianus CM Boon, Angeline PC Lim, Ashley Webb, Eng Eong Ooi and Richard J Webby

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:126

    Content type: Research

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  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is the most widely studied pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF superfamily. In pathophysiological conditions, generation of TNFα at high levels leads to the development of inflam...

    Authors: Srirupa Mukhopadhyay, John R Hoidal and Tapan K Mukherjee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:125

    Content type: Review

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  4. It has been suggested that low μM concentrations of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous bronchodilator, may promote maturation of the defective cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (...

    Authors: Zhanna Servetnyk, Jelena Krjukova, Benjamin Gaston, Khalequz Zaman, Lena Hjelte, Godfried M Roomans and Anca Dragomir

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:124

    Content type: Research

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  5. Gap junctions are membrane channels formed by an array of connexins which links adjacent cells realizing an electro- metabolic synapse. Connexin-mediated communication is crucial in the regulation of cell grow...

    Authors: Angela Trovato-Salinaro, Elisa Trovato-Salinaro, Marco Failla, Claudio Mastruzzo, Valerio Tomaselli, Elisa Gili, Nunzio Crimi, Filippo Daniele Condorelli and Carlo Vancheri

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:122

    Content type: Research

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  6. In guinea pigs, we have previously demonstrated that the contribution of Rho-kinase to airway responsiveness in vivo and ex vivo is enhanced after active sensitization with ovalbumin (OA). Using conscious, unrest...

    Authors: Dedmer Schaafsma, I Sophie T Bos, Annet B Zuidhof, Johan Zaagsma and Herman Meurs

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:121

    Content type: Research

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  7. Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent...

    Authors: Lisa Claire du Toit, Viness Pillay and Michael Paul Danckwerts

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:118

    Content type: Review

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  8. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction underlies acute bronchospasm in asthma. ASM cells can switch between a synthetic-proliferative phenotype and a contractile phenotype. While the effects of extracellular m...

    Authors: Thai Tran, Karol D McNeill, William T Gerthoffer, Helmut Unruh and Andrew J Halayko

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:117

    Content type: Research

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  9. Acute exacerbations of COPD are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Respiratory viruses are associated with the majority of exacerbations but a causal relationship has not been demonstra...

    Authors: Patrick Mallia, Simon D Message, Tatiana Kebadze, Hayley L Parker, Onn M Kon and Sebastian L Johnston

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:116

    Content type: Research

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  10. Staphylococcus aureus produces a set of proteins which act both as superantigens and toxins. Although their mode of action as superantigens is well understood, little is known about their effects on airway epithe...

    Authors: Garrett J O'Brien, Gareth Riddell, J Stuart Elborn, Madeleine Ennis and Grzegorz Skibinski

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:115

    Content type: Research

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  11. The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-β1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and ...

    Authors: Dominic T Keating, Denise M Sadlier, Andrea Patricelli, Sinead M Smith, Dermot Walls, Jim J Egan and Peter P Doran

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:114

    Content type: Research

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  12. The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic dise...

    Authors: Clarisse Vandebrouck, Patricia Melin, Caroline Norez, Renaud Robert, Christelle Guibert, Yvette Mettey and Frédéric Becq

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:113

    Content type: Research

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  13. Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effect...

    Authors: Dong-Won Lee, Shawna A Shirley, Richard F Lockey and Shyam S Mohapatra

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:112

    Content type: Research

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  14. Small airway and vessels play a critical role in chronic airway and pulmonary vascular diseases, but their pharmacology has not been well characterised. We have studied airway and vascular responses in rat lun...

    Authors: L Moreno, F Perez-Vizcaino, L Harrington, R Faro, G Sturton, PJ Barnes and JA Mitchell

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:111

    Content type: Research

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  15. The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) is recommended by treatment guidelines for the treatment of persistent asthma. Two such combination products, salmeterol/flut...

    Authors: Jan Lötvall, Stephen Langley and Ashley Woodcock

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:110

    Content type: Research

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  16. The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) t...

    Authors: Gunnar Gudmundsson, Thorarinn Gislason, Eva Lindberg, Runa Hallin, Suppli Charlotte Ulrik, Eva Brøndum, Markku M Nieminen, Tiina Aine, Per Bakke and Christer Janson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:109

    Content type: Research

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  17. Caveolae are involved in diverse cellular functions such as signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis, endo- and transcytosis, and also may serve as entry sites for microorganisms. Hence, their occurrence i...

    Authors: Gabriela Krasteva, Uwe Pfeil, Marek Drab, Wolfgang Kummer and Peter König

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:108

    Content type: Research

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  18. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of ...

    Authors: Dahui You, David Becnel, Kai Wang, Michael Ripple, Melissa Daly and Stephania A Cormier

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:107

    Content type: Research

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  19. Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment wou...

    Authors: Maren Zapke, Hans-Georg Topf, Martin Zenker, Rainer Kuth, Michael Deimling, Peter Kreisler, Manfred Rauh, Christophe Chefd'hotel, Bernhard Geiger and Thomas Rupprecht

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:106

    Content type: Research

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  20. Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of ...

    Authors: Brant E Isakson, Colin E Olsen and Scott Boitano

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:105

    Content type: Research

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  21. PPARs exhibit anti-inflammatory capacities and are potential modulators of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that their expression and/or function may be altered in cystic fibrosis (CF), a disorder ch...

    Authors: Veerle Reynders, Stefan Loitsch, Constanze Steinhauer, Thomas Wagner, Dieter Steinhilber and Joachim Bargon

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:104

    Content type: Research

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  22. The response to β2-adrenoceptor agonists is reduced in asthmatic airways. This desensitization may be in part due to inflammatory mediators and may involve cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs). Cysteinyl-LTs ar...

    Authors: G Enrico Rovati, Michele Baroffio, Simona Citro, Lorenzo Brichetto, Saula Ravasi, Manlio Milanese, Emanuele Crimi and Vito Brusasco

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:103

    Content type: Research

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  23. Fibroblasts are implicated in sub-epithelial fibrosis in remodeled asthmatic airways and contribute to airway inflammation by releasing cytokines and other mediators. Fibroblast activity is influenced by membe...

    Authors: Anna J James, John F Penrose, Angelica M Cazaly, Stephen T Holgate and Anthony P Sampson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:102

    Content type: Research

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  24. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF), a lung-specific growth factor, promotes vascular tubule formation in a matrigel plug model. We initially found that HIMF enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VE...

    Authors: Qiangsong Tong, Liduan Zheng, Li Lin, Bo Li, Danming Wang, Chuanshu Huang, George M Matuschak and Dechun Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:101

    Content type: Research

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  25. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of limited and prolonged hyperoxia on neonatal rat lung. This is done by examining the morphologic changes of apoptosis, the expression of ceramide, an important m...

    Authors: Ahmad W Husari, Ghassan S Dbaibo, Hala Bitar, Aline Khayat, Shoghag Panjarian, Michel Nasser, Fadi F Bitar, Marwan El-Sabban, Ghazi Zaatari and Salman M Mroueh

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:100

    Content type: Research

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  26. Studies on recurrent tuberculosis (TB), TB molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility testing rely on the analysis of one Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from a single sputum sample collected at different ...

    Authors: Isdore C Shamputa, Levan Jugheli, Nikoloz Sadradze, Eve Willery, Françoise Portaels, Philip Supply and Leen Rigouts

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:99

    Content type: Research

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  27. Although pneumococcal pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death due to infectious diseases, little is known about pneumococci-lung cell interaction. Herein we tested the hypothesis that pneumococci a...

    Authors: Bernd Schmeck, Kerstin Moog, Janine Zahlten, Vincent van Laak, Philippe Dje N'Guessan, Bastian Opitz, Simone Rosseau, Norbert Suttorp and Stefan Hippenstiel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:98

    Content type: Research

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  28. Pneumonia, a common disease caused by a great diversity of infectious agents is responsible for enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide. The bronchial and lung epithelium comprises a large surface between h...

    Authors: Stefan Hippenstiel, Bastian Opitz, Bernd Schmeck and Norbert Suttorp

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:97

    Content type: Review

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  29. The acid sensitive ion channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1) and ASIC3 (acid sensing ion channel-3) respond to tissue acidification in the range that occurs during painful conditio...

    Authors: Michael Groth, Tanja Helbig, Veronika Grau, Wolfgang Kummer and Rainer V Haberberger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:96

    Content type: Research

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  30. Fibroblast foci (FF) are considered a relevant morphologic marker of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), and are recognised as sites where fibrotic responses are initiated and...

    Authors: Marco Chilosi, Alberto Zamò, Claudio Doglioni, Daniela Reghellin, Maurizio Lestani, Licia Montagna, Serena Pedron, Maria Grazia Ennas, Alessandra Cancellieri, Bruno Murer and Venerino Poletti

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:95

    Content type: Research

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  31. Despite the widespread use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) as a biomarker of airways inflammation, there are no published papers describing normal FENO values in a large group of healthy adults.

    Authors: Mario Olivieri, Giorgio Talamini, Massimo Corradi, Luigi Perbellini, Antonio Mutti, Claudio Tantucci and Mario Malerba

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:94

    Content type: Research

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  32. Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing...

    Authors: Renate Paddenberg, Peter König, Petra Faulhammer, Anna Goldenberg, Uwe Pfeil and Wolfgang Kummer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:93

    Content type: Research

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  33. A positive association between IgE sensitisation and exhaled NO levels has been found in several studies, but there are no reports on the compartment of the lung that is responsible for the increase in exhaled...

    Authors: Andrei Malinovschi, Christer Janson, Thomas Holmkvist, Dan Norbäck, Pekka Meriläinen and Marieann Högman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:92

    Content type: Research

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  34. ADAM33, the first asthma candidate gene identified by positional cloning, may be associated with childhood asthma, lung function decline and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. However, replication results have been i...

    Authors: Michaela Schedel, Martin Depner, Carola Schoen, Stephan K Weiland, Christian Vogelberg, Bodo Niggemann, Susanne Lau, Thomas Illig, Norman Klopp, Ulrich Wahn, Erika von Mutius, Renate Nickel and Michael Kabesch

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:91

    Content type: Research

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  35. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating disease characterized by exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition and aggressive lung structural remodeling. Disease pathogenesis is driven by fibroblas...

    Authors: KL Watts, E Cottrell, PR Hoban and MA Spiteri

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:88

    Content type: Research

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  36. L-arginine is the common substrate for nitric oxide synthases and arginases. Increased arginase levels in the blood of patients with cystic fibrosis may result in L-arginine deficiency and thereby contribute t...

    Authors: Hartmut Grasemann, Raphael Schwiertz, Corinna Grasemann, Udo Vester, Kurt Racké and Felix Ratjen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:87

    Content type: Research

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  37. Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the pr...

    Authors: Matthias Ochs, Markus Schüttler, Guido Stichtenoth and Egbert Herting

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:86

    Content type: Research

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  38. Ozone (O3), a common air pollutant, induces exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary surfactant protein (SP)-D modulates immune and inflammatory responses in the lung. We have s...

    Authors: S Kierstein, FR Poulain, Y Cao, M Grous, R Mathias, G Kierstein, MF Beers, M Salmon, RA Panettieri Jr and A Haczku

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:85

    Content type: Research

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  39. Recognition of repeat unmethylated CpG motifs from bacterial DNA through Toll-like receptor (TLR-9) has been shown to induce interleukin (IL)-8 expression in immune cells. We sought to investigate the role of ...

    Authors: N William Parilla, Valerie S Hughes, Kristin M Lierl, Hector R Wong and Kristen Page

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:84

    Content type: Research

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  40. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that CD8+ T lymphocytes contribute to local allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation. Since bone marrow (BM) responses are intricately involved in the induction of...

    Authors: Madeleine Rådinger, Svetlana Sergejeva, Anna-Karin Johansson, Carina Malmhäll, Apostolos Bossios, Margareta Sjöstrand, James J Lee and Jan Lötvall

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:83

    Content type: Research

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  41. According to the hygiene hypothesis, infections in early life protect from allergic diseases. However, in earlier studies surrogate measures of infection rather than clinical infections were associated with de...

    Authors: Anne Zutavern, Stephanie von Klot, Ulrike Gehring, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann and Joachim Heinrich

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:81

    Content type: Research

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  42. Effects of respiratory viral infection on airway epithelium include airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation. Both features may contribute to the development of asthma. Excessive damage and loss of epithel...

    Authors: Gurpreet K Singhera, Tiffany S Chan, Jenny Y Cheng, Timothy Z Vitalis, Kimm J Hamann and Delbert R Dorscheid

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:78

    Content type: Research

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