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  1. Content type: Commentary

    The hygiene hypothesis, as originally proposed, postulated an inverse relation between the incidence of infectious diseases in early life and the subsequent development of allergies and asthma. New evidence fr...

    Authors: Fernando D Martinez

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:129

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    The availability of molecular tools to carry out genotyping has led to a flurry of association studies between specific genes and clinical indices of disease or disease susceptibility. Human studies, for the m...

    Authors: Mitchell L Drumm

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:125

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  3. Content type: Review

    Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of th...

    Authors: Scott Greenfeder, Shelby P Umland, Francis M Cuss, Richard W Chapman and Robert W Egan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:71

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  4. Content type: Review

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21 amino acid peptide with diverse biological activity that has been implicated in numerous diseases. ET-1 is a potent mitogen regulator of smooth muscle tone, and inflammatory mediato...

    Authors: Karen A Fagan, Ivan F McMurtry and David M Rodman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:90

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies make...

    Authors: Suveer Singh and Ron du Bois

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:61

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  6. Content type: Research

    The pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the interstitial lung disease cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) may involve an immunological reaction to unidentified antigens in the lung, resulting in tissue da...

    Authors: Cleo Robinson, Marinella Callow, Sandra Stevenson, Bruce WS Robinson and Richard A Lake

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:119

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  7. Content type: Review

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) mediates important pro-inflammatory functions in asthma including induction of the IgE isotype switch, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), promotion of eosinophil tra...

    Authors: John W Steinke and Larry Borish

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:66

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  8. Content type: Review

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airfl...

    Authors: David A Lomas and Edwin K Silverman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2001 2:20

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  9. Content type: Research

    The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial.

    Authors: Mark D Eisner, Patricia P Katz, Edward H Yelin, Stephen C Shiboski and Paul D Blanc

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:4

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  10. Content type: Review

    Despite much information on their catalytic properties and gene regulation, we actually know very little of what matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) do in tissues. The catalytic activity of these enzymes has been...

    Authors: William C Parks and Steven D Shapiro

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:3

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  11. Content type: Commentary

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used as anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. They act through binding to glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), which represses numerous genes encoding pro-inflamma...

    Authors: Rosalia Gagliardo, Antonio M Vignola and Marc Mathieu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 2:1

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  12. Content type: Review

    The human lysosomal cysteine proteases are a family of 11 proteases whose members include cathepsins B, C, H, L, and S. The biology of these proteases was largely ignored for decades because of their lysosomal...

    Authors: Paul J Wolters and Harold A Chapman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:9

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  13. Content type: Review

    Although bronchogenic carcinomas progress through a very well defined sequence of metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, very little is known about the early progression of glandular neoplasms of the lung. ...

    Authors: William H Westra

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:8

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  14. Content type: Review

    Since their discovery 15 years ago, the role of γδ T cells has remained somewhat elusive. Responses of γδ T cells have been found in numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. New evidence points to γδ T...

    Authors: Willi K Born, Michael Lahn, Katsuyuki Takeda, Arihiko Kanehiro, Rebecca L O'Brien and Erwin W Gelfand

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:6

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  15. Content type: Commentary

    Deficient microbial stimulation of the immune system, caused by hygiene, may underly the atopy and allergic asthma epidemic we are currently experiencing. Consistent with this 'hygiene hypothesis', research on...

    Authors: Paolo Maria Matricardi and Sergio Bonini

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:2

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  16. Content type: Review

    Many pulmonary diseases preferentially affect the large airways or the alveoli. Although the mechanisms are often particular to each disease process, site-specific differences in leukocyte trafficking and the ...

    Authors: Claire M Doerschuk

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:4

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  17. Content type: Commentary

    Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma an...

    Authors: Edith Puchelle and Bruno Peault

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:1

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  18. Content type: Commentary

    The identification of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene opened the way for gene therapy. In the ten years since then, proof of principle in vitro and then in animal models in vivo has been followed by numerous clinic...

    Authors: Myra Stern, M Geddes Duncan and WFW Alton Eric

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:3

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  19. Content type: Commentary

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized clinically by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, decreased pulmonary compliance and hypoxemia. Although suppor...

    Authors: Arthur S Slutsky and V Marco Ranieri

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:2

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  20. Content type: Review

    Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) participates in the innate response to inhaled microorganisms and organic antigens, and contributes to immune and inflammatory regulation within the lung. SP-D is synthesized and se...

    Authors: Erika C Crouch

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:6

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  21. Content type: Review

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allo...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Sallenave

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:5

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  22. Content type: Commentary

    Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are commonly associated with elevated production of nitric oxide (NO•) and increased indices of NO• -dependent oxidative stress. Although NO• is known to have ant...

    Authors: Albert van der Vliet, Jason P Eiserich and Carroll E Cross

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:1

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  23. Content type: Review

    Airway hyper-reactivity is a characteristic feature of many inflammatory lung diseases and is defined as an exaggerated degree of airway narrowing. Chemokines and their receptors are involved in several pathol...

    Authors: Kate Blease, Nicholas W Lukacs, Cory M Hogaboam and Steven L Kunkel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:13

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  24. Content type: Review

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness are unclear. Current studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a cytokine that is produced in considerable quant...

    Authors: Yassine Amrani, Hang Chen and Reynold A Panettieri Jr

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:12

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  25. Content type: Review

    The medical research community is experiencing a marked increase in the amount of information available on genomic sequences and genes expressed by humans and other organisms. This information offers great opp...

    Authors: Edward Gabrielson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:10

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  26. Content type: Commentary

    The limitations of currently available treatment for severe respiratory infection are demonstrated by the relatively fixed mortality associated with these infections despite advances in nutrition, vaccines, an...

    Authors: K Kolls Jay and Steve Nelson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:4

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  27. Content type: Review

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI-3Ks) are enzymes that generate lipid second messenger molecules, resulting in the activation of multiple intracellular signalling cascades. These events regulate a broad array of...

    Authors: Alison M Condliffe, Karen A Cadwallader, Trevor R Walker, Robert C Rintoul, Andrew S Cowburn and Edwin R Chilvers

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2000 1:8

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