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Table 3 Subgroup analysis to explore heterogeneity in the estimate of the pooled prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis

From: Pulmonary function and chest computed tomography abnormalities 6–12 months after recovery from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Studies (k) Patients (n) Pooled prevalence (95% CI) I2 (%) P value
Overall 18 2597 0.32 (0.23–0.40) 96.59  
Follow-up interval after initial presentation (months) 0.290
 6 11 1254 0.36 (0.24–0.47) 95.10  
 12 7 1343 0.26 (0.11–0.40) 97.74  
Risk of bias of study 0.966
 Low-to-intermediate 9 1880 0.31 (0.18–0.44) 97.80  
 Intermediate-to-high 9 717 0.32 (0.19–0.44) 94.05  
Proportion of patients with severe COVID-19 (%)a 0.014
 ≥ 50 10 1804 0.36 (0.23–0.50) 73.90  
 < 50 6 534 0.18 (0.12–0.24) 88.62  
Pulmonary fibrosis definition 0.102
 Defined clearly in the original article 10 1540 0.38 (0.23–0.52) 97.63  
 Estimated by the authors 8 1057 0.24 (0.15–0.33) 91.59  
  1. COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019
  2. aSome studies included in the overall meta-analysis did not report data on the disease severity of patients and were therefore not included in the subgroup analysis