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Table 2 Subgroup analysis to explore heterogeneity in the estimate of the pooled prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities

From: Pulmonary function and chest computed tomography abnormalities 6–12 months after recovery from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Studies (k) Patients (n) Pooled prevalence (95% CI) I2 (%) P value
Impaired diffusion capacity 19 2573 0.35 (0.30–0.41) 87.72  
Follow-up interval after initial presentation (months) 0.115
 6 10 1450 0.39 (0.34–0.45) 74.42  
 12 9 1123 0.31 (0.21–0.40) 91.70  
Risk of bias of study 0.931
 Low-to-moderate 12 1803 0.35 (0.28–0.43) 91.31  
 Moderate-to-high 7 770 0.36 (0.29–0.42) 69.20  
Proportion of patients with severe COVID-19 (%)a 0.015
 ≥ 50 13 2105 0.39 (0.35–0.44) 73.90  
 < 50 5 398 0.24 (0.12–0.35) 88.62  
Reduced forced vital capacity 15 2679 0.08 (0.06–0.11) 85.51  
Follow-up interval after initial presentation (months) 0.006
 6 7 1201 0.13 (0.08–0.19) 89.57  
 12 8 1478 0.05 (0.03–0.07) 69.29  
Risk of bias of study 0.033
 Low-to-moderate 10 2219 0.06 (0.04–0.08) 78.97  
 Moderate-to-high 5 550 0.15 (0.07–0.24) 87.16  
Proportion of patients with severe COVID-19 (%)a 0.544
 ≥ 50 10 2218 0.08 (0.05–0.10) 86.82  
 < 50 3 288 0.06 (0.00–0.11) 75.23  
  1. COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019
  2. aSome of the studies included in the overall meta-analysis did not report data on the disease severity of patients and were therefore not included in the subgroup analysis