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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression analyses to predict high probability of ASCVD risk

From: Sarcopenia is associated with cardiovascular risk in men with COPD, independent of adiposity

Variables All Mild airflow limitationd Moderate to very severe airflow limitatione
OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Age, years 1.56 1.44–1.681 < 0.001 1.55 1.38–1.73 < 0.001 1.59 1.42–1.77 < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 1.11 0.91–1.350 0.295 1.21 0.88–1.64 0.21 1.06 0.81–1.39 0.683
Fat mass index, kg/m2* 0.93 0.67–1.303 0.686 0.91 0.57–1.47 0.704 0.95 0.58–1.57 0.846
Central obesitya 0.84 0.38–1.884 0.677 0.86 0.25–3.00 0.818 0.78 0.24–2.37 0.655
Current smoking 3.74 2.06–6.779 < 0.001 6.85 2.43–19.31 < 0.001 3.06 1.33–6.71 0.005
Regular exerciseb 1.01 0.57–1.787 0.969 0.76 0.33–1.76 0.516 1.26 0.56–2.85 0.582
Hypertension 8.42 4.52–15.69 < 0.001 11.64 4.58–29.60 < 0.001 8.98 3.73–21.63 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 13.77 6.40–29.50 < 0.001 18.06 5.72–57.06 < 0.001 16.06 5.38–47.92 < 0.001
Hyper-LDL cholesterolemia 3.11 1.22–7.92 0.018 5.60 1.42–22.02 0.014 2.20 0.60–8.07 0.237
Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia 3.03 1.71–5.36 < 0.001 3.48 1.50–8.08 0.004 2.77 1.24–6.22 0.013
FEV1, L 1.38 0.82–2.33 0.231 1.33 0.37–4.77 0.664 1.04 0.40–2.70 0.937
Sarcopeniac 2.32 1.05–5.15 0.039 1.93 0.41–9.15 0.41 2.97 1.06–8.36 0.039
  1. ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Fat mass index was calculated by dividing each participant’s fat mass (kg) by square of height (m) (kg/m2)
  3. aCentral obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men
  4. bRegular exercise was defined as > 20 min per session, at least 3 times per week (n = 702)
  5. cSarcopenia was defined as sarcopenia index < 0.774
  6. dFEV1 ≥ 80% of predicted value
  7. eFEV1 < 80% of predicted value