Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Association between dexamethasone treatment and the host response in COVID-19 patients admitted to the general ward

  Wave 1 (no dexamethasone) Wave 2 (dexamethasone) p-value
n = 48 n = 126
Demographics
 Age (years) 60 [51–69] 63 [51–72] 0.59
 Body mass index 28.7 [26.8–32.5] 28.6 [25.8–31.6] 0.52
 Female gender 25 (52.1) 42 (33.3) 0.04
 Symptoms prior to admission (days) 9 [7–12] 8 [7–10] 0.38
 Days between admission and sampling 1 [1–2] 1 [1–2] 0.26
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular 21 (43.8) 55 (43.7) > 0.99
 Pulmonary 9 (18.8) 29 (23.0) 0.69
 Diabetes mellitus 7 (14.6) 26 (20.6) 0.49
 Malignancy 2 (4.2) 7 (5.6) > 0.99
 Chronic kidney disease 1 (2.1) 7 (5.6) 0.57
 Immune suppressiona 0 (0.0) 3 (2.4) 0.67
Vital signs on admission
 Heart rate (beats/min) 92 [84–105] 91 [80–100] 0.16
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128 [120–140] 134 [123–148] 0.09
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 [76–88] 80 [72–88] 0.98
 Respiratory rate (/min) 24 [21–30] 24 [20–28] 0.44
 Temperature (°C) 37.5 [36.7–38.1] 38.0 [37.3–38.6] 0.01
Laboratory values on admission
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 96 [48–147] 90 [61–141] 0.66
 White blood cells (× 109/L) 6.1 [5.3–8.4] 6.1 [4.8–7.8] 0.39
 Neutrophils (× 109/L) 4.86 [3.74–6.59] 4.80 [3.30–6.26] 0.46
 Lymphocytes (× 109/L) 0.92 [0.74–1.31] 0.90 [0.60–1.15] 0.38
 Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 5.43 [3.52–8.32] 5.18 [3.21–8.00] 0.70
 Platelets (× 109/L) 244 [190–322] 212 [154–248]  < 0.01
 LDH (U/L) 359 [277–432] 336 [286–420] 0.92
 Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 4.65 [3.70–6.28] 5.40 [4.35–7.20] 0.12
Disease severity on admission
 4C Mortality Scoreb 9 [7–11] 10 [7–12] 0.15
 CURB-65 scorec 1 [0–1] 1 [0–2] 0.45
 MEWS 3 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 0.25
 qSOFA score 1 [0–1] 1 [0–1] 0.47
 CT severity scored 11 [9–15] 11 [10–15] 0.73
Treatment prior to sampling
 Dexamethasone 0 (0.0) 126 (100) < 0.01
 Prophylactic anticoagulatione 32 (66.7) 88 (71.0) 0.72
 Therapeutic anticoagulationf 7 (14.6) 10 (7.9) 0.30
 Remdesivir 1 (2.1) 3 (2.4) > 0.99
Outcomes
 Pulmonary embolismg 5 (10.4) 7 (5.6) 0.43
 ICU admission 5 (10.6) 19 (15.3) 0.59
 Hospital length of stay (days) 5 [3–9] 6 [3–9] 0.86
 30-day mortality 7 (14.6) 13 (10.7) 0.67
  1. Data are shown as n (%) or median [interquartile range]
  2. ICU intensive care unit, qSOFA quick sequential organ failure assessment, MEWS modified early warning score
  3. aDefined as chronic immune suppression due to asplenia, HIV, bone marrow or solid organ transplant
  4. bValidated COVID-19 severity score [11]
  5. cClinical score used in community-acquired pneumonia, using confusion, blood urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age
  6. dRadiological scoring system to estimate the pulmonary involvement by COVID-19, with a maximum of 25
  7. eNadroparin 2850 IE or 5700 IE once daily, according to body weight
  8. fNadroparin 9500 IE twice daily, direct oral anticoagulant, continuous heparin infusion or vitamin K antagonist
  9. gDiagnosed by CT pulmonary angiography within 28 days of admission