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Table 2 Concentrations of vitamins A, C, D, and E (α- and γ-tocopherol) by characteristics of study participants, continuous NHANES (1999–2006)

From: Serum antioxidant vitamins and respiratory morbidity and mortality: a pooled analysis

Characteristics % participants Vitamin A (µg/dl) Vitamin C (mg/dl) 25-OHD (ng/mL) Vitamin E isoforms
α-Tocopherol (mg/dl) γ-Tocopherol (µg/dl)
Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P
All participants 100 58.7 (48.5, 70.2)   0.95 (0.58, 1.24)   24.1 (18.5, 30.1)   1.17 (0.92, 1.52)   210 (137, 296)  
Age groups            
 20–39 years 38.9 54.7 (45.0, 65.1) Ref. 0.91 (0.57, 1.18) Ref. 24.3 (18.3, 30.4) Ref. 0.99 (0.82, 1.21) Ref. 210 (151, 283) Ref.
 40–59 years 39.3 59.7 (49.7, 71.5)  < 0.001 0.92 (0.53, 1.18) 0.001 24.0 (18.7, 29.9)  < 0.001 1.24 (1.01, 1.58)  < 0.001 221 (142, 316)  < 0.001
 60 + years 21.8 64.5 (54.5, 76.3)  < 0.001 1.10 (0.73, 1.43)  < 0.001 24.0 (18.6, 29.2) 0.015 1.47 (1.13, 1.98)  < 0.001 182 (104, 287)  < 0.001
Sex            
 Men 48.2 62.6 (53.1, 73.4)  < 0.001 0.88 (0.50, 1.15)  < 0.001 24.4 (19.3, 29.8) 0.015 1.15 (0.91, 1.48)  < 0.001 213 (143, 298) 0.470
 Women 51.8 54.8 (44.9, 66.3) 1.03 (0.67, 1.33) 23.7 (17.8, 30.2) 1.18 (0.94, 1.56) 206 (132, 293)
Race/ethnicity            
 Non-Hispanic Whites 71.9 61.0 (51.0, 72.5) Ref. 0.98 (0.56, 1.27) Ref. 26.0 (20.8, 31.4) Ref. 1.22 (0.96, 1.60) Ref. 206 (131, 294) Ref.
 Non-Hispanic Blacks 10.7 51.0 (41.1, 62.4)  < 0.001 0.88 (0.60, 1.14)  < 0.001 15.0 (11.2, 20.1)  < 0.001 0.98 (0.82, 1.21)  < 0.001 238 (170, 318)  < 0.001
 Mexican Americans 7.6 52.1 (43.1, 62.0)  < 0.001 0.92 (0.65, 1.14)  < 0.001 20.7 (15.9, 25.6)  < 0.001 1.08 (0.88, 1.35)  < 0.001 214 (151, 296)  < 0.001
 Other 9.9 55.0 (45.0, 65.2)  < 0.001 0.96 (0.64, 1.20) 0.132 20.8 (16.2, 26.3)  < 0.001 1.14 (0.90, 1.42)  < 0.001 201 (138, 278) 0.992
Income            
  < $20,000 22.5 55.6 (45.1, 67.3)  < 0.001 0.88 (0.45, 1.17)  < 0.001 22.0 (15.9, 27.9)  < 0.001 1.07 (0.86, 1.41)  < 0.001 227 (152, 314)  < 0.001
 $20,000 +  77.5 59.7 (49.5, 71.0) 0.97 (0.61, 1.25) 24.6 (19.2, 30.3) 1.19 (0.95, 1.55) 205 (133, 291)
Education levels            
 Below high school graduate 19.4 56.0 (45.5, 67.2)  < 0.001 0.84 (0.47, 1.15)  < 0.001 21.9 (15.9, 27.7)  < 0.001 1.10 (0.88, 1.40)  < 0.001 227 (153, 316)  < 0.001
 High school graduate/Some college 55.9 58.8 (48.8, 69.9)  < 0.001 0.92 (0.53, 1.21)  < 0.001 24.3 (18.5, 30.2)  < 0.001 1.15 (0.91, 1.52)  < 0.001 220 (148, 306)  < 0.001
 College graduate or higher 24.7 61.1 (50.6, 72.9) Ref. 1.07 (0.81, 1.34) Ref. 25.3 (20.5, 30.5) Ref. 1.25 (1.01, 1.60) Ref. 176 (111, 251) Ref.
Cigarette smoke exposure            
 No smoke exposure 28.9 58.0 (48.4, 70.2) Ref. 1.07 (0.79, 1.33) Ref. 24.4 (19.5, 29.9) Ref. 1.24 (0.98, 1.63) Ref. 186 (120, 268) Ref.
 Secondhand smoke exposure 21.4 56.1 (45.5, 67.4)  < 0.001 0.93 (0.58, 1.22)  < 0.001 22.6 (16.9, 29.1)  < 0.001 1.07 (0.87, 1.38)  < 0.001 228 (156, 310)  < 0.001
 Past smokers (Quit > 5 years ago) 19.2 63.2 (53.2, 75.1)  < 0.001 1.04 (0.73, 1.33) 0.011 25.4 (19.9, 30.3) 0.200 1.33 (1.06, 1.77)  < 0.001 200 (116, 291) 0.020
 Past smokers (Quit within last 5 years) 5.9 58.9 (48.6, 70.8) 0.985 0.94 (0.64, 1.18)  < 0.001 23.9 (19.2, 30.2) 0.709 1.14 (0.90, 1.47)  < 0.001 213 (148, 301)  < 0.001
 Current smokers 24.6 57.8 (48.1, 68.6) 0.174 0.68 (0.29, 1.05)  < 0.001 23.6 (17.1, 30.2)  < 0.001 1.05 (0.86, 1.31)  < 0.001 226 (160, 311)  < 0.001
BMI            
 Underweight 1.8 52.2 (40.6, 62.4)  < 0.001 1.04 (0.50, 1.34) 0.826 25.0 (18.5, 31.2) 0.029 1.01 (0.80, 1.25)  < 0.001 159 (102, 233) 0.097
 Normal 32.1 57.7 (48.0, 69.8) Ref... 1.06 (0.70, 1.34) Ref. 26.3 (20.6, 32.2) Ref. 1.11 (0.89, 1.44) Ref. 171 (115, 237) Ref.
 Overweight 34.2 61.4 (51.2, 72.7)  < 0.001 0.99 (0.63, 1.25)  < 0.001 24.5 (19.4, 30.2)  < 0.001 1.23 (0.98, 1.62)  < 0.001 209 (139, 292)  < 0.001
 Obese 31.9 57.0 (47.1, 68.4)  < 0.001 0.83 (0.47, 1.11)  < 0.001 21.6 (16.1, 27.3)  < 0.001 1.16 (0.93, 1.50) 0.004 256 (179, 354)  < 0.001
Alcohol consumption            
 Heavy drinker 9.9 64.9 (55.0, 77.8)  < 0.001 0.93 (0.48, 1.23)  < 0.001 25.5 (19.9, 31.3)  < 0.001 1.17 (0.93, 1.52) 0.004 207 (135, 291) 0.025
 Light/moderate drinker 62.7 59.2 (49.2, 70.2)  < 0.001 0.95 (0.59, 1.23) 0.001 24.7 (19.4, 30.4)  < 0.001 1.16 (0.93, 1.51) 0.007 207 (136, 290)  < 0.001
 Non-drinker 27.4 55.7 (45.4, 67.5) Ref. 0.98 (0.59, 1.29) Ref. 22.4 (16.7, 28.1) Ref. 1.18 (0.92, 1.57) Ref. 216 (140, 310) Ref.
Taking vitamin supplements            
 Yes 53.5 61.5 (51.0, 73.4)  < 0.001 1.09 (0.82, 1.37)  < 0.001 25.5 (20.6, 31.2)  < 0.001 1.35 (1.06, 1.80)  < 0.001 170 (107, 254)  < 0.001
 No 46.5 55.5 (46.1, 66.3) 0.74 (0.36, 1.05) 22.2 (15.9, 28.3) 1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 247 (184, 335)
Caloric intake tertiles            
 3rd (higher) 33.2 59.9 (50.5, 71.1) 0.002 0.90 (0.54, 1.18)  < 0.001 24.9 (19.6, 30.3)  < 0.001 1.11 (0.89, 1.44)  < 0.001 222 (151, 302)  < 0.001
 2nd 34.1 58.9 (48.5, 70.4) 0.111 1.00 (0.61, 1.26) 0.980 24.0 (18.5, 30.2)  < 0.001 1.20 (0.94, 1.57) 0.932 205 (134, 292) 0.824
 1st (lower) 32.7 57.3 (46.9, 69.2) Ref. 0.98 (0.61, 1.30) Ref. 23.5 (17.7, 29.3) Ref. 1.19 (0.94, 1.58) Ref 202 (127, 293) Ref
General health status            
 Excellent or very good 52.0 59.4 (49.3, 70.6) Ref. 1.03 (0.70, 1.30) Ref. 25.6 (20.4, 31.2) Ref. 1.18 (0.93, 1.53) Ref. 199 (128, 276) Ref.
 Good 31.4 58.1 (48.0, 69.4) 0.228 0.90 (0.52, 1.19)  < 0.001 23.0 (17.6, 29.2)  < 0.001 1.15 (0.92, 1.51) 0.008 218 (146, 305)  < 0.001
 Fair or poor 16.6 57.9 (46.5, 70.7) 0.167 0.82 (0.44, 1.14)  < 0.001 20.9 (15.5, 26.7)  < 0.001 1.15 (0.91, 1.50) 0.050 237 (154, 337)  < 0.001
Current asthma            
 Yes 6.1 59.3 (48.7, 70.7) 0.540 0.90 (0.53, 1.22) 0.028 23.3 (17.9, 29.5) 0.321 1.15 (0.91, 1.47) 0.043 213 (146, 296) 0.121
 No 93.9 58.7 (48.6, 70.2) 0.96 (0.59, 1.24) 24.2 (18.6, 30.1) 1.17 (0.93, 1.53) 209 (137, 296)
Wheeze in past 12 months            
 Yes 15.5 59.0 (48.7, 70.5) 0.030 0.85 (0.42, 1.15)  < 0.001 23.4 (17.5, 29.4) 0.078 1.14 (0.91, 1.48) 0.001 230 (158, 324)  < 0.001
 No 84.5 58.7 (48.5, 70.2) 0.98 (0.62, 1.25) 24.3 (18.7, 30.2) 1.17 (0.93, 1.53) 206 (134, 291)
Chronic bronchitis or emphysema            
 Yes 6.9 61.1 (48.5, 73.1)  < 0.001 0.76 (0.36, 1.17)  < 0.001 23.3 (17.9, 29.2) 0.339 1.21 (0.94, 1.59) 0.057 234 (152, 332) 0.002
 No 93.1 58.5 (48.5, 70.1) 0.97 (0.60, 1.24) 24.2 (18.5, 30.1) 1.16 (0.92, 1.52) 208 (137, 294)
  1. Q1 1st quartile, Q3 3rd quartile, BMI body mass index
  2. P-values estimated using the Kruskal–Wallis H test for 2-level comparisons and the Dwass, Steel, Critchlow-Flinger analysis for 3 or more level comparisons