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Table 1 Concentrations of vitamins A, C, D, and E (α-tocopherol) by characteristics of study participants, NHANES III (1988–1994)

From: Serum antioxidant vitamins and respiratory morbidity and mortality: a pooled analysis

  % participants Vitamin A (µg/dl) Vitamin C (mg/dl) 25-OHD (ng/mL) Vitamin E [α-Tocopherol (mg/dl)]
Characteristics Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P Median (Q1,Q3) P
All participants 100 56.6 (47.1, 67.5)   0.74 (0.36, 1.04)   24.4 (18.2, 31.2)   1.04 (0.85, 1.31)  
Age groups          
 20–39 years 46.5 53.5 (44.5, 63.7) Ref. 0.70 (0.31, 0.99) Ref. 25.7 (19.0, 32.8) Ref. 0.91 (0.78, 1.11) Ref.
 40–59 years 31.8 57.5 (48.3, 68.8)  < 0.001 0.74 (0.35, 1.03) 0.992 23.7 (17.8, 30.0) 0.003 1.13 (0.93, 1.40)  < 0.001
 60 + years 21.6 61.8 (52.1, 73.3)  < 0.001 0.87 (0.51, 1.18)  < 0.001 23.1 (17.4, 29.0) 0.022 1.27 (1.03, 1.62)  < 0.001
Sex          
 Men 47.8 60.5 (51.7, 70.7)  < 0.001 0.67 (0.29, 0.96)  < 0.001 25.8 (20.0, 32.4)  < 0.001 1.04 (0.85, 1.28)  < 0.001
 Women 52.2 52.3 (43.3, 63.6) 0.82 (0.44, 1.13) 23.0 (16.7, 29.8) 1.05 (0.86, 1.34)
Race/ethnicity          
 Non-Hispanic Whites 76.4 58.0 (48.6, 68.7) Ref. 0.77 (0.36, 1.08) Ref. 26.3 (20.4, 32.8) Ref. 1.08 (0.87, 1.36) Ref.
 Non-Hispanic Blacks 10.7 51.2 (42.1, 62.4)  < 0.001 0.57 (0.25, 0.87)  < 0.001 15.6 (11.9, 20.6)  < 0.001 0.91 (0.76, 1.11)  < 0.001
 Mexican Americans 5.3 51.7 (43.0, 61.1)  < 0.001 0.70 (0.38, 0.96)  < 0.001 20.8 (16.0, 26.3)  < 0.001 1.00 (0.83, 1.23)  < 0.001
 Other 7.6 51.8 (43.3, 64.1)  < 0.001 0.76 (0.47, 1.00) 0.582 20.4 (15.8, 26.8)  < 0.001 0.98 (0.82, 1.25)  < 0.001
Income          
   < $20,000 33.2 54.9 (45.5, 66.6)  < 0.001 0.63 (0.25, 0.98)  < 0.001 23.1 (16.8, 29.7)  < 0.001 0.99 (0.81, 1.26)  < 0.001
 $20,000 +  66.8 57.4 (47.9, 67.9) 0.78 (0.43, 1.07) 25.1 (19.0, 32.1) 1.07 (0.87, 1.34)
Education levels          
 Below high school graduate 24.9 56.3 (46.9, 67.2)  < 0.001 0.61 (0.23, 0.97)  < 0.001 23.3 (17.4, 29.6)  < 0.001 1.02 (0.83, 1.31)  < 0.001
 High school graduate/Some college 54.5 55.9 (46.3, 66.4)  < 0.001 0.73 (0.35, 1.04)  < 0.001 24.3 (17.9, 31.4)  < 0.001 1.03 (0.84, 1.29)  < 0.001
 College graduate or higher 20.6 58.5 (49.4, 69.6) Ref. 0.86 (0.60, 1.11) Ref. 25.9 (20.3, 32.5) Ref. 1.10 (0.90, 1.36) Ref.
Cigarette smoke exposure          
 No smoke exposure 8.5 57.2 (45.9, 68.0) Ref. 0.95 (0.71, 1.22) Ref. 24.1 (18.0, 30.8) Ref. 1.17 (0.94, 1.52) Ref.
 Secondhand smoke exposure 37.3 55.1 (45.4, 65.6)  < 0.001 0.81 (0.48, 1.07)  < 0.001 24.1 (18.0, 30.4)  < 0.001 1.02 (0.84, 1.28)  < 0.001
 Past smokers (Quit > 5 years ago) 18.4 60.9 (51.9, 72.5)  < 0.001 0.85 (0.53, 1.10)  < 0.001 25.4 (19.7, 31.6)  < 0.001 1.18 (0.96, 1.50) 1.000
 Past smokers (Quit within 5 years) 7.1 58.8 (49.2, 69.6) 0.360 0.75 (0.40, 1.01)  < 0.001 24.4 (18.2, 32.0) 1.000 1.06 (0.85, 1.30)  < 0.001
 Current smokers 28.6 54.9 (46.3, 65.6) 0.057 0.43 (0.15, 0.84)  < 0.001 24.1 (17.8, 32.0)  < 0.001 0.96 (0.80, 1.19)  < 0.001
BMI          
 Underweight 2.4 46.3 (39.9, 56.5)  < 0.001 0.72 (0.30, 1.13) 0.22 24.5 (17.8, 32.8) 0.295 0.91 (0.79, 1.10) 0.001
 Normal 42.3 54.6 (45.4, 65.5) Ref. 0.80 (0.41, 1.11) Ref. 26.0 (19.6, 33.0) Ref. 0.99 (0.81, 1.24) Ref.
 Overweight 32.9 59.2 (49.7, 69.7)  < 0.001 0.74 (0.36, 1.02)  < 0.001 24.5 (18.5, 31.0)  < 0.001 1.11 (0.90, 1.41)  < 0.001
 Obese 22.4 56.9 (47.2, 68.0) 0.994 0.63 (0.30, 0.95)  < 0.001 21.4 (16.0, 27.4)  < 0.001 1.08 (0.89, 1.33)  < 0.001
Alcohol consumption          
 Heavy drinker 10.3 61.9 (51.0, 73.4)  < 0.001 0.61 (0.21, 0.97)  < 0.001 25.0 (18.6, 32.8) 0.016 1.01 (0.84, 1.26)  < 0.001
 Light/moderate drinker 44.3 57.6 (48.9, 67.7)  < 0.001 0.74 (0.39, 1.02)  < 0.001 26.0 (19.7, 32.6)  < 0.001 1.03 (0.84, 1.26)  < 0.001
 Non-drinker 45.4 54.0 (44.5, 65.0) Ref. 0.77 (0.38, 1.08) Ref. 23.0 (17.1, 29.5) Ref. 1.07 (0.86, 1.37) Ref.
Taking vitamin supplements          
 Yes 42.2 58.8 (48.7, 70.1)  < 0.001 0.93 (0.63, 1.20)  < 0.001 25.5 (19.5, 32.1)  < 0.001 1.20 (0.96, 1.54)  < 0.001
 No 57.8 54.9 (45.8, 65.6) 0.58 (0.24, 0.91) 23.5 (17.4, 30.5) 0.96 (0.80, 1.17)
Caloric intake tertiles          
 3rd (higher) 33.3 58.8 (49.0, 68.9)  < 0.001 0.69 (0.32, 0.98)  < 0.001 26.2 (20.0, 32.8)  < 0.001 1.02 (0.83, 1.24)  < 0.001
 2nd 34.0 56.5 (47.0, 67.0) 0.279 0.76 (0.37, 1.07) 0.817 24.8 (18.6, 31.6)  < 0.001 1.04 (0.85, 1.33)  < 0.001
 1st (lower) 32.6 54.4 (44.8, 65.8) Ref. 0.78 (0.40, 1.11) Ref. 22.3 (16.8, 29.1) Ref. 1.07 (0.87, 1.38) Ref.
General health status          
 Excellent or very good 51.3 56.6 (47.4, 67.3) Ref. 0.80 (0.45, 1.07) Ref. 25.9 (19.8, 32.3) Ref. 1.04 (0.86, 1.30) Ref.
 Good 32.9 56.7 (46.6, 67.3)  < 0.001 0.69 (0.30, 1.03)  < 0.001 23.5 (17.4, 30.7)  < 0.001 1.04 (0.83, 1.31) 0.061
 Fair or poor 15.8 56.4 (46.7, 68.3) 0.728 0.63 (0.25, 0.98)  < 0.001 21.4 (16.1, 27.9)  < 0.001 1.08 (0.87, 1.36) 0.003
Current asthma          
 Yes 5.1 56.8 (48.2, 67.9) 0.725 0.67 (0.33, 1.01) 0.099 23.8 (17.4, 31.5) 0.065 1.03 (0.87, 1.27) 0.948
 No 94.9 56.6 (47.0, 67.4) 0.74 (0.36, 1.04) 24.4 (18.2, 31.2) 1.04 (0.85, 1.32)
Wheeze in past 12 months          
 Yes 17.4 55.9 (46.7, 66.5) 0.064 0.62 (0.24, 0.98)  < 0.001 24.5 (18.3, 31.7) 0.099 1.03 (0.85, 1.27) 0.765
 No 82.6 56.8 (47.1, 67.6) 0.76 (0.39, 1.06) 24.4 (18.1, 31.1) 1.05 (0.85, 1.32)
Chronic bronchitis or emphysema          
 Yes 7.8 56.3 (46.7, 67.7)  < 0.001 0.61 (0.23, 0.98)  < 0.001 23.0 (17.6, 31.0) 0.217 1.07 (0.88, 1.34)  < 0.001
 No 92.2 56.6 (47.1, 67.4) 0.75 (0.37, 1.04) 24.5 (18.2, 31.2) 1.04 (0.85, 1.31)
  1. Q1 1st quartile, Q3 3rd quartile, BMI body mass index
  2. P-values estimated using the Kruskal–Wallis H test for 2-level comparisons and the Dwass, Steel, Critchlow-Flinger analysis for 3 or more level comparisons