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Table 1 The clinical characteristics of the training set, internal validation set, and external validation set

From: Development and validation of a prediction model for tuberculous pleural effusion: a large cohort study and external validation

Characteristics Training set (n = 651) Internal validation set (n = 258) External validation set (n = 110)
  Non-TB BPE
(n = 361)
TPE
(n = 290)
Non-TB BPE
(n = 134)
TPE
(n = 124)
Non-TB BPE
(n = 48)
TPE
(n = 62)
Age (years) 67.0 (55.5–79.0) 48.0 (28.0–67.3) 66.0 (55.0–76.3) 42.0 (28.0–58.8) 66.5 (57.8–79.0) 51.0 (34.0–69.0)
Gender (n, %)       
 Female 116 (32.1) 87 (30.0) 47 (35.1) 44 (35.5) 8 (16.7) 17 (27.4)
 Male 245 (67.9) 203 (70.0) 87 (64.9) 80 (64.5) 40 (83.3) 45 (73.6)
Smoke status (n, %)       
 Non-smokers 216 (59.8) 186 (64.1) 86 (64.2) 87 (70.2) 27 (56.2) 41 (66.1)
 C/F smokers 145 (40.2) 104 (35.9) 48 (35.8) 37 (29.8) 21 (43.8) 21 (33.9)
Effusion       
 WBC (× 10.9/L) 1.27 (0.42–3.85) 2.18 (1.22–3.70) 1.50 (0.40–5.17) 2.39 (1.42–3.89) 0.88 (0.4–2.93) 1.36 (0.57–2.95)
 Neutrophil (× 10.9/L) 0.23 (0.06–1.50) 0.14 (0.05–0.38) 0.25 (0.04–1.35) 0.18 (0.06–0.44) 0.24 (0.06–1.23) 0.13 (0.04–0.25)
 Lymphocyte (× 10.9/L)
 Total protein (g/L)
0.39 (0.14–1.21)
39.50 (25.25–48.80)
1.86 (0.95–2.95)
51.25 (48.00–54.30)
0.49 (0.15–1.57)
40.25 (26.30–51.93)
1.99 (1.12–3.28)
51.75 (48.25–55.23)
0.33 (0.12–1.21)
40.85 (25.55–48.40)
1.10 (0.36–2.30)
49.10 (45.18–52.53)
 Glucose (mmol/L) 6.82 (4.89–8.54) 5.39 (4.30–6.38) 6.50 (4.77–8.48) 5.55 (4.36–6.37) 7.06 (5.04–9.41) 5.52 (4.48–7.00)
 ADA (U/L) 10.50 (5.20–20.85) 42.25 (32.50–54.83) 10.00 (4.40–21.42) 44.00 (33.38–55.83) 12.00 (5.00–23.00) 43.50 (32.75–53.00)
 LDH (U/L) 228.0 (121.0–755.5) 441.0 (309.5–666.8) 301.0 (126.5–889.5) 450 (318.8–642.8) 387.5 (189.8–997.3) 506.5 (361.0–842.3)
 CA125 (U/ml) 1134.5 (546.9–2029.2) 995.1 (452.2–1638.7) 1096.5 (490.0–1855.0) 1031.0 (464.8–1630.4) 1205.7 (492–2102.5) 897.8 (437.9–1757.8)
 CA19-9 (U/ml) 2.00 (1.00–3.63) 2.50 (1.29–4.10) 2.00 (0.98–4.95) 2.50 (1.51–4.58) 2.15 (1.03–3.85) 2.20 (1.08–4.75)
Serum       
 WBC (× 10.9/L) 7.50 (5.60–10.50) 6.18 (5.06–7.67) 7.52 (5.86–10.48) 6.40 (5.10–7.63) 6.55 (5.35–8.90) 5.95 (4.30–7.30)
 Neutrophil (× 10.9/L) 5.10 (3.10–8.10) 4.20 (3.30–5.50) 5.15 (4.00–7.65) 4.28 (3.40–5.44) 4.74 (3.78–6.98) 4.36 (2.80–5.51)
 Lymphocyte (× 10.9/L) 1.10 (0.70–1.50) 1.10 (0.80–1.40) 1.10 (0.80–1.50) 1.10 (0.80–1.42) 0.99 (0.69–1.38) 0.91 (0.56–1.24)
 hsCRP (mg/L) 27.04 (6.28–105.27) 44.48 (17.22–79.25) 30.54 (5.87–107.69) 42.84 (19.07–68.87) 56.68 (13.49–163.5) 68.80 (28.23–93.80)
 ESR (mm/h) 47.0 (22.5–69.0) 46.0 (27.0–69.0) 43.5 (19.0–66.3) 46.5 (33.0–65.0) 54.00 (25.00–73.50) 46.50 (30.00–65.25)
 ADA (U/L) 10.60 (7.80–14.80) 11.55 (8.68–14.80) 10.60 (7.70–13.53) 11.70 (9.20–15.25) 9.00 (7.00–13.00) 11.50 (9.00–15.00)
 LDH (U/L) 187.0 (156.0–232.5) 193.0 (165.0–239.0) 199.0 (160.8–245.3) 185.0 (156.0–226.0) 202.0 (163.0–250.8) 176.5 (161.8–207.0)
 CA125 (U/ml) 63.8 (28.4–148.7) 103.3 (55.7–183.8) 61.3 (30.1–129.7) 124.1 (54.1–192.1) 72.3 (42.2–169.6) 111.7 (64.4–211.4)
 CA19-9 (U/ml) 8.90 (4.25–16.20) 6.09 (3.18–10.53) 6.50 (3.98–15.50) 5.80 (3.60–10.30) 8.80 (4.30–13.00) 4.20 (2.18–9.40)
  1. TB tuberculous, WBC white blood cell, ADA adenosine deaminase, LDH lactatedehy drogenase, CA125 carbohydrate antigen 125, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  2. Continuous variables were presented as median and inter quartile rang (IQR, 25th–75th). Categorical variables were presented as number and percentage (n, %)