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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics within the 3 clusters

From: Clinical and cytokine patterns of uncontrolled asthma with and without comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis: a cross-sectional study

Parameters Total [n, (%)] Cluster 1 [46, (32.2)] Cluster 2 [54, (37.8)] Cluster 3 [43, (30.0)] p value
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years) 55.0 (42.0, 64.0) 59.0 (48.5, 66.2) 54.5 (43.7, 65.0) 47.0 (39.0, 61.0) 0.033*
 Male, n (%) 50 (34.9) 13 (28.3) 13 (24.1) 24 (55.8) 0.003*
 Asthma onset age (years) 39.8 (17.6) 41.6 (21.0) 40.3 (17.5) 37.2 (13.4) 0.338
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.7 (22.3, 27.1) 24.9 (23.2, 27.5) 24.5 (22.5, 26.1) 24.4 (21.0, 27.3) 0.484
Characteristics associated with comorbid CRS
 Comorbid CRS, n (%) 96 (67.1) 1 (2.2) 54 (100.0) 41 (95.3) < 0.001*
 Comorbid NP, n (%) 24 (16.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (7.4) 20 (46.5) < 0.001*
 Lund-Mackay score 7 (0, 14) 0 (0, 0) 8 (6, 12) 16 (10, 20) < 0.001*
Severity of airflow obstruction and airway inflammation
 Blood gas analysis
 PaO2 (mmHg) 76.9 (11.0) 78.8 (10.2) 80.0 (12.0) 71.0 (8.0) < 0.001*
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 40.0 (37.0, 42.0) 40.0 (37.0, 42.0) 38.0 (35.0, 40.2) 41.0 (39.0, 44.0) < 0.001*
Spirometry
 FEV1/FVC before bronchodilator (%) 72.4 (59.1, 83.7) 78.1 (64.5, 85.1) 82.6 (75.8, 86.4) 56.7 (50.5, 62.0) < 0.001*
 FEV1/FVC after bronchodilator (%) 74.2 (63.0, 83.8) 74.5 (65.2, 85.9) 83.1 (78.6, 87.2) 60.9 (53.6, 65.1) < 0.001*
 FEV1%pred before bronchodilator (%) 72.5 (23.7) 73.4 (20.6) 88.7 (16.5) 51.2 (17.2) < 0.001*
 FEV1%pred after bronchodilator (%) 78.6 (21.9) 78.6 (18.8) 92.6 (14.2) 60.9 (17.7) < 0.001*
Chest CT
 Bronchiectasis, n (%) 27 (18.9) 6 (13.0) 9 (16.6) 12 (27.9) 0.175
 T/D ratio 0.248 (0.187) 0.248 (0.019) 0.242 (0.017) 0.254 (0.017) 0.005*
 WA% 0.736 (0.389) 0.737 (0.396) 0.726 (0.037) 0.750 (0.036) 0.009*
Characteristics associated with inflammation type
 Atopy, n (%) 66 (46.1) 14 (30.4) 22 (40.7) 30 (69.8) 0.001*
 Blood eosinophil percentage (%) 4.8 (2.6, 9.5) 2.6 (1.8, 4.9) 4.4 (2.4, 8.9) 9.9 (5.0, 13.0) < 0.001*
 Blood eosinophil count (× 109/L) 0.32 (0.15, 0.59) 0.16 (0.11, 0.29) 0.32 (0.14, 0.58) 0.61 (0.38, 0.90) < 0.001*
 Serum T-IgE (kU/L) 137.0 (47.6, 312.0) 56.2 (22.5, 173.0) 142.0 (46.8, 329.0) 213.0 (133.0, 533.0) < 0.001*
 Log(T-IgE) 2.07 (0.62) 1.80 (0.60) 2.06 (0.60) 2.37 (0.54) < 0.001*
 Sputum eosinophil percentage (%) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 2.5) 0.006*
 FeNO (ppb) 39.2 (20.0, 54.3) 33.0 (17.0, 39.8) 39.4 (13.0, 52.2) 54.5 (32.0, 84.0) < 0.001*
Medication on enrollment
 No medication, n (%) 30 (20.9) 14 (30.4) 11 (20.4) 5 (11.6) 0.092
 ICS, n (%) 93 (65.0) 25 (54.3) 32 (59.3) 36 (83.7) 0.008*
 LABA, n (%) 78 (54.5) 19 (41.3) 26 (48.1) 33 (76.7) 0.002*
 LTRA, n (%) 42 (29.3) 13 (28.3) 18 (33.3) 11 (25.6) 0.693
 Theophylline, n (%) 38 (26.5) 13 (28.3) 13 (24.1) 12 (27.9) 0.87
 Antihistamines, n (%) 20 (14.0) 3 (6.5) 10 (18.5) 7 (16.3) 0.198
 LAMA, n (%) 0 0 0 0
Asthma severity§      < 0.001*
 Mild, n (%) 66 (49.6) 24 (57.1) 32 (66.7) 10 (23.3) < 0.001*
 Moderate, n (%) 46 (34.6) 14 (33.3) 14 (29.2) 18 (41.9) 0.436
 Severe, n (%) 21 (15.8) 4 (9.5) 2 (4.2) 15 (34.9) < 0.001*
  1. BMI, body mass index; CRS, chronic rhinosinusitis; NP, nasal polyps; PaO2, partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide; T-IgE, total IgE; FeNO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide; ppb, parts per billion; CT, computed tomography; T/D ratio, ratio of airway wall thickness to total diameter; WA%, percentage of airway wall area to total area; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting beta2-agonist; LTRA, Leukotriene receptor antagonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic anticholinergics. *statistical significance. values are presented as means (SD). values are presented as medians (25–75% interquartile range).§Totally 133 patients were assessed for asthma severity, including 42 patients in cluster 1, 48 in cluster 2, and 43 in cluster 3