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Table 1 The temporal trends of age-standardized DALY rate attributed to risk factors across different SDI regions, 1990 to 2019

From: Distributions and trends of the global burden of COPD attributable to risk factors by SDI, age, and sex from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis of GBD 2019 data

   All risk factors Smoking Household air pollution Occupational particles Ambient particulate matter Ambient ozone pollution Secondhand smoke High temperature Low temperature
Global EAPC(95%CI) 1990–1999 − 1.46 (− 1.67 – − 1.25) − 0.87 (− 1.13 – − 0.61) − 4.03 (− 4.34–− 3.72) − 1.41 (− 1.63 – − 1.19) 0.47 (0.37–0.56) 0.46 (0.23–0.70) − 1.86 (− 2.20–− 1.51) 15.04 (8.20–22.30) − 2.52 (− 3.33–− 1.71)
2000–2009 − 2.85 (− 2.98–− 2.71) − 2.94 (− 3.11–− 2.77) − 5.57 (− 5.82–− 5.32) − 2.79 (− 2.94–− 2.63) − 1.09 (− 1.29–− 0.88) − 0.60 (− 1.31–0.11) − 3.41 (− 3.57–− 3.25) 2.39 (− 0.31–5.16) − 4.25 (− 4.69–− 3.81)
2010–2019 − 2.12 (− 2.30–− 1.93) − 2.24 (− 2.42–− 2.06) − 6.19 (− 6.42–− 5.96) − 2.04 (− 2.26–− 1.81) − 0.91 (− 1.46–− 0.34) − 1.26 (− 2.11–− 0.40) − 1.83 (− 2.14–− 1.52) 2.06 (− 0.10–4.26) − 2.99 (− 3.53–− 2.44)
Low SDI EAPC (95%CI) 1990–1999 − 0.45 (− 0.61–− 0.30) − 0.45 (− 0.62–− 0.28) − 1.06 (− 1.21–− 0.92) − 0.44 (− 0.60–− 0.28) 1.10 (0.37–1.83) 1.07 (0.30–1.85) − 0.59 (− 0.74–− 0.43) − 0.55 (− 1.15–0.06)
2000–2009 − 0.77 (− 0.98–− 0.56) − 0.72 (− 0.93–− 0.51) − 2.13 (− 2.43–− 1.83) − 0.52 (− 0.71–− 0.33) 2.35 (2.03–2.68) 1.73 (0.56–2.90) − 1.14 (− 1.35–− 0.94) 20.89 (10.16–32.66) − 1.18 (− 1.83–− 0.52)
2010–2019 − 1.47 (− 1.65–− 1.29) − 1.59 (− 1.73–− 1.45) − 4.09 (− 4.42–− 3.77) − 1.11 (− 1.29–− 0.94) 1.94 (0.70–3.20) 1.51 (1.08–1.94) − 0.35 (− 0.5–− 0.21) 3.65 (− 0.23–7.68) − 1.01 (− 2.19–0.19)
Low− middle SDI EAPC (95%CI) 1990–1999 − 1.11 (− 1.33–− 0.89) − 0.89 (− 1.14–− 0.64) − 2.54 (− 2.81–− 2.27) − 0.98 (− 1.22–− 0.73) 1.23 (0.58–1.89) 1.49 (0.90–2.08) − 1.14 (− 1.33–− 0.94) 25.14 (9.75–42.69) − 2.01 (− 2.72–− 1.30)
2000–2009 − 1.91 (− 2.25–− 1.57) − 2.00 (− 2.33–− 1.68) − 4.46 (− 4.81–− 4.10) − 1.58 (− 1.92–− 1.24) 1.49 (0.92–2.06) 0.55 (− 0.52–1.63) − 2.11 (− 2.39–− 1.83) 3.07 (0.43–5.78) − 2.68 (− 3.19–− 2.17)
2010–2019 − 1.71 (− 1.89–− 1.53) − 1.85 (− 2.03–− 1.67) − 6.08 (− 6.18–− 5.98) − 1.65 (− 1.79–− 1.51) 1.57 (0.36–2.79) 1.35 (1.04–1.65) − 1.18 (− 1.35–− 1.01) 2.67 (0.34–5.05) − 2.77 (− 3.55–− 1.98)
Middle SDI EAPC (95%CI) 1990–1999 − 2.20 (− 2.48–− 1.92) − 1.05 (− 1.33–− 0.75) − 6.20 (− 6.78–− 5.62) − 2.05 (− 2.33–− 1.76) 0.79 (0.66–0.92) − 0.11 (− 0.50–0.29) − 2.57 (− 3.05–− 2.08) 7.33 (− 1.99–17.53) − 3.14 (− 3.98–− 2.29)
2000–2009 − 4.06 (− 4.30–− 3.83) − 3.95 (− 4.25–− 3.65) − 9.01 (− 9.68–− 8.34) − 4.01 (− 4.29–− 3.74) − 2.04 (− 2.34–− 1.73) − 1.09 (− 1.90–− 0.28) − 4.48 (− 4.71–− 4.25) − 1.04 (− 5.36–3.47) − 5.55 (− 6.07–− 5.02)
2010–2019 − 3.41 (− 3.73–− 3.08) − 3.45 (− 3.76–− 3.14) − 10.03 (− 10.17–− 9.90) − 3.28 (− 3.63–− 2.93) − 2.77 (− 3.13–− 2.41) − 5.11 (− 7.04–− 3.15) − 3.02 (− 3.43–− 2.60) − 0.54 (− 4.38–3.45) − 4.34 (− 5.07–− 3.61)
High-middle SDI EAPC (95%CI) 1990–1999 − 2.23 (− 2.76–− 1.70) − 1.40 (− 2.02–− 0.77) − 7.83 (− 8.53–− 7.12) − 2.26 (− 2.77–− 1.76) − 0.69 (− 1.08–− 0.30) − 1.05 (− 1.79–− 0.31) − 2.52 (− 3.02–− 2.02) − 0.72 (− 7.97–7.11) − 3.18 (− 4.21–− 2.14)
2000–2009 − 4.62 (− 5.08–− 4.16) − 4.65 (− 5.14–− 4.16) − 12.36 (− 13.34–− 11.36) − 4.76 (− 5.27–− 4.25) − 3.10 (− 3.59–− 2.61) − 2.88 (− 3.63–− 2.12) − 4.64 (− 5.11–− 4.17) − 6.21 (− 9.49–− 2.81) − 5.57 (− 6.20–− 4.93)
2010–2019 − 2.76 (− 3.23–− 2.28) − 2.71 (− 3.19–− 2.24) − 10.33 (− 10.90–− 9.76) − 2.80 (− 3.32–− 2.27) − 3.21 (− 3.59–− 2.83) − 3.07 (− 4.60–− 1.51) − 2.71 (− 3.34–− 2.09) − 0.05 (− 6.22–6.52) − 3.62 (− 4.37–− 2.85)
High SDI EAPC (95%CI) 1990–1999 − 0.46 (− 0.57–− 0.35) − 0.55 (− 0.67–− 0.44) − 10.75 (− 11.26–− 10.24) − 0.50 (− 0.62–− 0.39) − 1.41 (− 1.53–− 1.28) 1.57 (0.89–2.26) − 1.33 (− 1.48–− 1.19) 5.72 (1.23–10.40) − 0.85 (− 1.54–− 0.15)
2000–2009 − 1.32 (− 1.42–− 1.22) − 1.38 (− 1.47–− 1.29) − 11.96 (− 12.17–− 11.76) − 1.16 (− 1.25–− 1.06) − 2.79 (− 2.90–− 2.68) − 1.90 (− 2.73–− 1.06) − 2.68 (− 2.82–− 2.54) 1.49 (− 1.77–4.86) − 1.60 (− 2.06–− 1.13)
2010–2019 − 0.84 (− 0.93–− 0.75) − 0.96 (− 1.04–− 0.89) − 7.13 (− 7.65–− 6.60) − 0.44 (− 0.51–− 0.37) − 2.65 (− 2.99–− 2.31) − 1.96 (− 2.60–− 1.32) − 0.61 (− 0.77–− 0.45) − 0.52 (− 4.51–3.64) − 0.85 (− 1.27–− 0.44)
  1. DALY disability-adjusted life year, SDI socio-demographic index, EAPC estimated annual percentage change, CI confidence interval