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Fig. 4 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 4

From: Distributions and trends of the global burden of COPD attributable to risk factors by SDI, age, and sex from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis of GBD 2019 data

Fig. 4Fig. 4

The global burden of COPD attributable to smoking over the past 30 years. A Age-standardized rates of DALY, YLL, YLD and death attributable to smoking, 1990–2019. B Age-specific DALY by SDI quintiles and sex in 2019. C Percentage change of age-standardized SEV of smoking for female and male in 204 countries from 1990 to 2019. D Relationship between PAF of age-standardized DALY and SDI in 2019. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DALY disability-adjusted life year, YLL year of life lost, YLD year lived with disability, SDI socio-demographic index, SEV summary exposure value, PAF population attributable fraction

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