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Table 1 The clinical characteristics of control and decline groups

From: Relationship between gut microbiota and lung function decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year follow-up study

Variables Control group Decline group p value
Male (n) 27 28  
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD (range) 70 ± 10 (50–89) 74 ± 9 (51–90) 0.105a
BH (m)
 Mean ± SD (range) 1.66 ± 0.06 (1.50–1.77) 1.63 ± 0.07 (1.50–1.77) 0.238a
BW (kg)
 Mean ± SD (range) 62 ± 11 (43–81) 60 ± 9 (40–75) 0.442a
BMI
 Mean ± SD (range) 22.62 ± 3.78 (14.88–29.72) 22.50 ± 3.45 (15.96–29.14) 0.901a
Smoking (n)
 Current smoker 9 7 0.777c
 Former smoker 15 18  
 Never smoker 3 3  
WBC (per µl)
 Median (range) 7060 (2580–14,410) 6980 (4090–19,590) 0.685b
Eosinophil (%)
 Median (range) 1.9 (0.0–36.1) 2.1 (0.2–10.9) 0.246b
Eosinophil (per µl)
 Median (range) 133 (0–4166) 166 (19–701) 0.229b
Stages (n)
 Stage 1 8 14 0.111c
 Stage 2 12 12  
 Stage 3 7 2  
CAT
 Mean ± SD 9.93 ± 6.68 8.68 ± 6.02 0.470a
 Score < 10 (n) 14 19 0.226c
Score 10 (n) 13 9  
mMRC
 Mean ± SD 0.96 ± 0.98 0.89 ± 1.17 0.810a
 Score < 2 (n) 17 21 0.334c
Score 2 (n) 10 7  
AE (n)
 Yes 7 3 0.144c
 No 20 25  
Medication (n)
 LABA 1 2 0.175c
 LAMA 5 4  
 LAMA + LABA 7 10  
 ICS + LABA 7 1  
 ICS + LAMA + LABA 7 11  
  1. SD standard deviation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n number of subjects, BH body height, WB body weight, BMI body mass index, WBC white blood cell, AE acute exacerbation, CAT COPD Assessment Test, mMRC Modified Medical Research Council, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, LABA long-acting beta agonist, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, aThe statistical analysis was tested by t test; bThe statistical analysis was tested by Mann–Whitney test; cThe statistical analysis was tested by χ2-test