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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study cohorts

From: Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Characteristics Healthy (n = 73) COPD I–II (n = 67) COPD III–IV (n = 32) p value
Age, years 59.7 ± 9.4 62.7 ± 6.7 61.5 ± 6.6 NS
BMI, kg/m2 24.6 ± 2.9 22.7 ± 3.6 20.8 ± 2.7 < 0.01abc
Smoking index (pack-yr) 18.3 ± 23.4 40.8 ± 28.8 42.8 ± 30.2 < 0.01ab
Smoking status, n (%)     < 0.001ab
 Never smoker 38 (52.05%) 0 0
 Current smoker 20 (27.40%) 48 (71.64%) 17 (53.10%) < 0.001
 Ex-smoker 15 (20.55%) 19 (28.36%) 15 (46.90%) < 0.001
Occupation, n (%)
 Manual work in industry 14 (19.18%) 12 (17.91%) 3 (9.38%) 0.809
 Manual work in service 10 (13.70%) 11 (16.42%) 3 (9.38%)
 Farmer 40 (54.79%) 33 (49.25%) 20 (62.50%)
 Professionals 4 (5.48%) 7 (10.45%) 4 (12.50%)
 Others 5 (6.85%) 4 (5.97%) 2 (6.24%)
CAT score 8 (3,11) 18 (14,24) < 0.001c
MMRC score 1 (0,1) 3 (2,3) < 0.001c
FEV1 (L) 2.80 ± 0.56 2.07 ± 0.52 0.96 ± 0.34 < 0.001abc
FEV1% 95.07 ± 14.53 73.88 ± 16.72 34.35 ± 9.91 < 0.001abc
FVC (L) 3.66 ± 0.68 3.44 ± 0.65 2.31 ± 0.53 < 0.001bc
FVC% 99.73 ± 13.90 97.13 ± 15.44 66.53 ± 12.63 < 0.001bc
FEV1/FVC% 76.22 ± 6.32 60.09 ± 8.64 42.82 ± 10.95 < 0.001abc
  1. Current smokers were defined as those who smoked more than five cigarettes per day during the past month; ex-smokers were defined as those who had smoked more than five cigarettes previously and had stopped for > 1 month; nonsmokers were defined as those who had never smoked or patients who smoked no more than five cigarettes per day at the time of the or previously. Data are shown as means ± SD or median (interquartile range). Differences in continuous variables were evaluated using ANOVA, and p values were corrected using the Bonferroni method
  2. FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC forced vital capacity, BMI body mass index, NS no significant difference, CAT COPD assessment test, MMRC modified Medical Research Council
  3. ap < 0.05 for equality between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) I–II group and healthy subjects
  4. bp < 0.05 for equality between the COPD III–IV group and healthy subjects
  5. cp < 0.05 for equality between the COPD III–IV and COPD I–II groups.